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Section II, 188Y. [ 1 ] Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada. 

Notea and Ohservatiom on the Kuvilciool People of the Northern Part of Vancouver 
Island and Adjaretit Coasts, made during the Summer of 1885; with a 
Vocahalary of al>ont seven hundred words. By George M. Dawson, D.S., 
r.Gr.S., Assistant -Director Geological Survey of Canada. 

(Presented May 25, 1887.) 

During the Summtn' oi' 1885, the writer was engaged in the geological examination of 
the northern part of Vancouver Island and its vicinity, the territory of the Kwakiool people. 
In connection with the pro.secution of hi.s work, he wa.s in constant and intimate 
association with this people, and enjoyed many excellent opportunities of obtaining iacts 
respecting them, of hearing their traditions and stories, and of becoming familiar with 
their mode of life and habits of thouglit. The notes, made at the time, are here presented 
in a systeraatised form. As thus set down in order, they are intended to be merely a record 
of facts and observations, and are olfcred as a contribution toward our knowledge of the 
Indians of the west coast. No attempt is made to theorise on the observMons, nor has the 
time at my disposal been sulficient to enable me to institute the comparisons which 
suggest themselves readily enough between tliese and other tribes of the region. These 
tribes, together with their ideas and their lore, such as they are, arc passing away before 
our eyes, or where they still show evidence of continued vitality, they are losing their old 
beliefs and ways. This being the case, it is perhaps needless to apologise for the 
necessarily incomplete charac^ • of this paper in some respects. 

A map has not been pre, .red to accompany this paper, biit that published in the 
Annual Report of the Geological Survey for 1886 emI)odies a large number of native 
names of places, including those of all the villages here referred to. 

I. — Tekritory ANT" Boundaries of the Kwakiool People. 

The people speaking dialects of the Kwakiool language, and constituting together 
one of the largest groups of the coast of British Columbia, have, so far as I know, no 
general name of their own. Dialectir diH'ercnccs of minor importance, from a linguistic 
point of view, are regarded by them as clearly separating tribe from tribe. The name 
" Kwakiool " has, however, by common consent, come to be employed to designate the 
whole, though strictly applicable to but two important tribes now inhabiting, with 
others, the vicinity of Fort Rupert. To the north, their territory comprises the coast of the 
mainland and a number of adjacent islands, borderingou the territory of the Tshimsian and 
interlocking with it. They enclose the peculiar and isolati'd Bilhoola people, who inhabit 
Dean Inlet and the North and South Bentinck Arms, on the north and south, and on the 
seaward side. Thence, southward, they claim the mainland coast to the entrance of 
Bute Inlet. Their territory includes, also, most of the islands l)y which the Strait of 
Georgia is closed to the north, and the north-east coast of Vancouver Island to some 




distance south of Cape Mudgo. Their southern border meets that of the group of peoples 
to which Dr. Tolmio and myself have provisionally applied the general name "Kawitshin." 
Thence, northward, they possess the Vancouver coast to the north-west point of the island, 
and extend down the west coast as far as Cape Cook or Woody Point, where they meet the 
Aht peoples. Their limits are shewn with proximate exactness on the map accomi>anying 
the "Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia," by Dr. Tolmie 
and the writer, published by the Canadian Geological Survey in 1884. On that map, 
however, the boundary between the Kwakiool and Aht peoples is, on the west coast of 
Vancouver Island, placed too far to the north. It is also to l)e noted, that while on the 
map it is necessary to divide the whole territory in a general way between the various 
peoples, large tracts are practically neither traversed nor resided in by any of them. This 
applies particularly to a large part of the rough mountainous country occupied by the Coast 
llange, and to a le,s.ser degree to the similar country in the! interior of Vancouver Island. 
The Kwakiool, like other tribes of the coast, go wherever they can travel l)y water, and 
live on and by the shore, seldom venturing to any considerable distance inland. Cut off 
from the Nasse and Skeena Rivers by the Tshimsian, from Dean Inlet and Bentin-k North 
Arm by the Bilhoola, they possess no available or practicable route through the region of 
the Coast Mountains to the interior of the province. Between Bute Inlet and the Beutiuck 
Arras they travel by lakes and rivers (which for the most part do not appear as yet on 
the maps) some distance into the mountain country ; but they have nowhere come 
habitually into contact with the Tinm" people who inhabit the whole northern part of the 
interior of the province, and th<'y have no trade routes to the interior, such as those in 
possession of the Bilhoola and Tshimsian. 

II.— Notes on Tribal Subdivisions of the Kwakiool, and Details 

Respecting them. 

In the " Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia," (1884) 
two enumerations were given of the tribal subdivisions of the Kwakiool people, one 
being by the late Dr. Tolmie, and the other by the writer. These did not precisely cor- 
respond, and neither was considered complete or satisfactory, the number of the 
constituent tribes or tribal subdivisions and the manner in which they have l)ecome 
mingled of late years, rendering it difficult to formulate the subdivisions. With the 
assistance of Mr. G. Blenkinsop, who has long resided among this people, I am now able 
to offer a complete, or proximately complete, list of the tribes, with the names and 
localities of most of their phu'es of residence, generally the so-called " winter village," 
where the most substantial houses are found, and in which one or more tribal sub- 
divisions are generally massed during the cold m(.nths, though in summer scattering to 
various fishing places and other resorts. The winter village is, occasionally, entirely 
deserted during a portion of the the summer, but is more usually left in charge of a few 
old people. 

Vario\is circumstances conspire to render it difficult to give satisfactory or definite 
localities for the several tribes. The combination of two or more recognised tribal 
divisions in a single village community during the winter months has not been confined 


TniBAr Subdivisions nv the Kwakiool Peopi.b. 
{Statistics for year ending June 30th, 1885, hi/ Qho. Blunkinsup.) 

Name of Tribe. 

O tn 

Nnuie uiid situation of |iriiiui|ial villuKC. 

f Hai-8hi-ln Douglas Cliiiniiel. 

Keim-ano-oitol iGardiiior (Jliiuinol. 

Ilai-liaisli Tolniio Chaniiol and Muasol Inlet. 

Hail-tzuk ... 
Wik-einoli ., 
Kwri'-shi-la . 
<g^ f Klus'-kaino. 

" fe Kwa'-tsl-no. 

c ^ 
o 3 i 

■g 2 I Kifiw-pino . . 
J® c I 

'''^ [Kfis'-ki-mo. . 

Milbank Sound and neigliborhood. 
Calvert Island, River's Inlet. 

Kwl-ki-lis, Smith's Inlet 

Tat'-oom'-kas on Klaskino Inlet 

Ow'-T-yr-kuniT, Fnrwiird Inlil, Quatsino Sound. 

, (Juatsino Sound, near the Nar- 

J, Ne-kuni '-ke-lTs-la. . 
8 <g f Kwa'-ki-ool 

'LV ] Walis-kwA-ki ool 

W ° LKwi-lia 


) H\vat-("s', 
j rows. 

JMel'-oopa, "Nawitti" 
I end of HojKA Inland. 


of the whites, east 

■ Sn-kish, " Fort Eujiert Village " of whites. 

Mis, Alev't Bay, Cormorant Island 

Na'-kwok-to To'-kwok-stai-e, Scvmour Inlet. . . . 

TC-nuh'-tuh .... 

A-wa-T-tle-la ...... 

Ts."i'-«ut-ai-nuk .. 


Kwa-wa-ai-nuk.. . 
Ma'-me-li-Ii-a-ka. . 




f Wa'-lit-Buni Koo-sam, mouth of Salmon River 


- J? 

I. -^ Wi-wO-eke . . 


"^ a\ KwT-ha 

Kwa-tsi, Point Macdonald, Kiiight'a Inlet. \ 

Kwa-us-tuncs, west end of Gilford Island. 


I Mi'ni-koom-lish, Villafre Island, near on- 
j tranoe of KnigliCs Inlot. 

Ka-loo-kwis, Tumour Island. 
Etsi-kin, Havanna Channel.. 



\Vi'-we-Okum , 
. A-wa-oo 

. 'T8.i-k\va-loo'-in, " Uculta village" of whites, near 
Ca|ie jMiuI^'o 

Tsai'-i-ye-uk, Arran Rapids, entran('e to But 


a-pow-is, Hoskyn Inlet. 













































VnliiGof furd 
and fii^li-dil 

14 *i2 


. . . . 






. . . . 




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205. (K) 













torerent years, but appcnrs to have occiirrtHl as far hack as tradition poos. Tu such case, 
each tribal subdivision oi'ten has its own place of summer residence. Whenth*' small-pox 
first ravaged the coast, after the coming of the whites, the Indians were not only much 
reduced in numbers, but became scattered, and new combinations were prol)ably formed 
subsequently; while tribes and i)()rtionsof tribes, once forming dis' met village communities, 
drew together for mutual protection, wlien their numbers became small. The establish- 
ment of Fort Rupert, at Heaver Harbour (in 1840), resulted in the migration of several 
tribes to that place and their permanenl re,sideuee there. The same may probably be 
said of Bella-liella, to the north, and occurred again much later on the erection of a trading 
post at Alert Bay, Cormorant Island. At all these places, however, old Indian villagi's, 
or at least old village sites, previously existed. Circumstances of this kind have particularly 
atl'ected the tribes of Queen Charlotte Sound and its vicinity, which were besides 
from the lirst closely allied by intermarriage and otherwise. The Ilcv. .V.J. Hall, in a 
letter in answer to certain enquiries on these people, writes: — "It would appear that the 
Indians had uo settled home till the whites came. During the summer months, they 
were scattered to the mouths of the rivers, collecting food, and many tribes amalgamated 
at such places as Alert Bay to amuse themselves with feasting and dancing during the 

On the advice of the medicine men, or shamans, the village sites were, further, not 
infrequently changed at times of public calamity or sickness, or for other reasons, and as all 
these Indians subsist largely on .'^hell-lish, such al)andoned village sites are permanently 
marked by '^^^ell heaps, and generally by white beaches formed of the bleached and worn 
fragments of shells. Low shores well adapted for the landing and bleaching of canoes 
have usually been selected for the more important villages, especially where such a shore 
is contiguous to some rocky point or promontory or small high rocky island which could 
be utilised as a fortilication. Almost every suitable rock along the coast shows evidence 
of having, at one time, been inhabited as a fortilied village of this kind. On Galiano 
Island and the small adjacent islands of the G'rdou Group alone there are eight or ten 
places recognised by the Indi.Mv as former village sites, and known to them ))y special 
names, as having, at some forme/ time, b, en inhabited by the tribes, or portions of the 
tribes, now living at Mel -oopa (" Nawitti " of the whites.) 

Though there is abiindant evidence that the Kwakiool people is now much reduced 
in number, the cirt'u.nstances above noted render it improper to argue as to the former 
populousness of the region from the great number of old village sites. The sites of 
permanent villages appear to have been changed more frequently and easily by this 
people, than by the Ilaida or other races of the coast with whi(!h I am acquainted. As a 
result of such changes, particularly in Qikmmi Charlotte 8ound, it is diliicult, or even 
impo.ssible, exactly to define *he territory appertaining to particular tribal subdivisions. 

In the tabular enumeration of tribes, I have adopted, in each (^ase, the most correct 
orthography, comparing the tribal names as written down at the time from the dictation 
of dilierent individuals. It will thus be found that the orthography does not exactly 
correspond, in several instances, with that given in the " Comparative Vocabularies," 
though it is, in all cases sutUciently near to permit of easy identification. In his olhcial 
returns to the Indian Department, Mr. Blenkinsop adopts a still different spelling, in which 
the "English" rather than the "Continental" sounds are given to the vowels. Mr. 


Bli'ukinaop'a namt? is t^iveti in tht> subjoined notos in parenthesis, following that here 
lutually a<loi)tod. To the enumeration of the tribes, I have added Mr. Blenkinsop's 
statistical return lor the year ending June liOth, 1885. This 1 have mysell' had an 
opportunity of checking in a number of instances, aird can, therefore, vouch for its general 
a('cura<;y. The iigures are of value as exhibiting the actual status of the tribes at the 
present time, and in the printed reports of tlie Indian Department are not given in detail. 
Tile lirst live Uibal sululivisions were not included in Mr Blenkinsop's district, no 
precise returns are available for them, and as I have not visited these tribes, the informa- 
tion which I am able to oiler concerning them is merely that already Kuud in the 
" Comparative Vocabularies." 

(1) //«/-.s7i<-/«.— Called by the Tshimsian " Kitamat," and known to the whites by that 
name. Douglas Channel. 

(2) Keiin-ano-eitoli. — Called l)y the Tshimsian " Kitlop," or " people of the rocks." 
Gardiner Channel. 

(8) Hni-haish. — Inlets on Tolmie Channel and Mussel Inlet. 

(4) Ilail-lzvi'-. — Called by the Tshimsian " Witsta," a word having some reference to the 
flattening of the craniixm, said by Dr. Tolmie to have been practiced in varying degrees 
by all the Kwakiool people, but of which, in most tribes, little or no trace is now to be 
found. Milbank Sound and neighbourhood. This people consists of three septs or 
smaller subdivisions, Owia-lei-toh, Owit-lei-toh and Kook-wai-wai-toh, occupying re- 
spectively the southern, middle and northern parts of the Sound. The last named is 
closely associated with the Kitistzoo or southernmost sept of the Tshimpsiau, and is now 
nearly extinct. 

(5) Wik-eiaoh. — Meaning " the portage makers." This people carry their canoes to a 
lake. Calvert Island, Tliver's Canal. 

(()) Kwd'-shi-li'i (K\vaw-she-lah). — This people borders on the last, iuhabitiug Smith's 

(7) K/'ix'-fcaino (Klfiso-ki-no). — This people w^as not mentioned in the lists in the 
"Comparative Vocabularies," and their territory, in the vicinity of Kiaskino Inlet of the 
charts, to the south of Quatsiuo Sonnd, was erroneously included on the map with that 
of the Ahl. They border on the Fwa'-tsT-no to the north, on the Aht people to the south, 
the line being approximately at Cape Cook or Woody Point. The tribe is very much 
reduced in number aiul may be said to be on the verge of extinction. These, with the 
three following tribes, constitute a well marked group, being together the Kvvakiool of 
the west coast of Vancouver Island. All four tribes are particularly and very remarkably 
distinguished from others by the practice of bandaging the heads of the female children, 
and causing them thus to a.ssurae an elongated conical form. These tribes are celebrated 
among the rest for growing good potatoes, which they cultivate in very small i^atches in 
a number of places, generally on cleared spots which have, at oiu- time, been village 
sites. Mr. lUenkinsop states that they grew in all about two hundred bushels of potatoes 
in the year to which his returns apply. From Ow-Tt (or as said by tht> Fort Rupert 
Indians "Ow-wTtti ") hereditary chief of the Kwa'-tsT-no, a number of interesting details 
were obtained respecting the migrations of the four tribes above alluded to. The Klas'- 
kaino had, however, so far as he knew, always inhabited their present territory, which, as 


he said, was rogardod as (IikUs eik, a " vory good" or "spi'fially favmirahlo" oiio. Whoii 
quostioiu'd closely as to the iiltiiuati! orii^iii of thi'se and other tiiWes, Ovv-it said that tnulitioii 
always related that thoy "oaiuedowii" or "appeared" at atH>rtaiii uuiiiher ol'diHiuite points. 
I was unablo to obtain auy raoro exaet dt'iinition of his nieanin;^, hut it is altogether 
probable that tht^se plaee .ire thosn o.viupied by ttin oldest villa'^^ti sites handed down by 
tradition, beyond which knowledge does not go. Thus, in the casi" ol' the ivLis-kaino, the 
lollowmg five places were enumerated as tliose at which they had "come down": — 
Oominis (south eutrauiH^ point of Quatsino Sound/, Xwat-lim-tish, Ti-w's, Ta-nilii and 

The termination represented by the Ibvms -Icuhm, -(sl-no, -pino, and -/iv-wo, of the names 
of these live tribes, doubtless conveys the idea of " people" varying in lorm according to 
combination. The name of the Kwa'-tsl-no thus probably means "poople of the west," 
from ktnrat-se " west-side" in combination with th(^ above. Tiie sulfix in Kns'-kT-rao in the 
same way, doiibtless signifies " people of," the i)laci' of that name being that of their 
reputed ori?;in, as stated on a following page. 

(8) Kud'-ts'i-no (Kwawt-se-no). — These people inhabit Forward Inlet, Quatsino Sound, 
but ulso resort to the west coast of Vancouver Island to the north of the Sound for halibut- 
fishing, where tlu-y have rough temi)orary huts at several places. Tlieir princijtal or 
winter village, named Ow'-i-yc-kumi, is on the east side of Forward Inlet, oi)p()site 
Kobsou Island, and occupies tht! low neck of a small peninsula, with a good beu h lor 
canoe-landing at each side, and bounded by a 1 )W cliff inland. They have also a second 
little village, of ruder constrU'tiou, named T.'-u"i-ale (from I'n-ir mi'nning " hone-stone," 
and referring to the abundance of sandstone), on the north shore of the upper part ot 
Forward Inlet (Winter Harbour). This may be classed as a "suramer village," but is 
rather an " autumn village," in which they reside when the dog-tooth salmon is running 
up the small streams in its vicinity. The Indians were living here when I first visited 
the inlet in September, 1878. 

The father of Ow-it, the present chief, is still alive, though very old, and Ow-Tt has 
taken his place as chief Ow-it's son, Ka-a-lct, is married and has tdiildren, so that, at the 
present time, four generations are represented. Ovv-Tt informed me that the principal 
village, above noted, was founded by his grandfather. It originally stood on the high 
rocks just above and to the east of the present site, and was fortified like most of the 
old towns. Afterwards, in more peaceful times, it was moved down to its p jsent site, 
which was at first all wooded, but was gradually cleared. The KwA'-tsT-no people, he 
said, formerly lived iu the vicinity of San Josef 15ay and Sea Otter Cove, where they " came 
down " in eight separate places, all of which he named, and where several old village sites 
are still to be seen. They drove the Kiaw-pino people away from Forward Inlet and 
killed many of them at that time. The old Kiriw-pino village was at Grassy Point of 
the chart, at the entrance to Winter Harbour. This is said to have occurred very loirg 
ago, but may not improbably have been immediately antecedent to the founding of the 
Kwa'-tsI-no village, above referred to. 

The Kwfi'-tsT-uo people fcrmerly obtained considerable quantities of diMitalium shells 
(utl-lla or a-tl-a, Denl<tlinm pmiosum) of which they made good use in trade, at a place 
between the village site aid the east entrance point of Forward Inlet. The fishery was 
carried on iu deep water by means of a number of split sticks or twigs in the form of a faggot, 


whi( h was tied to thn oiul of soveral polos lushed togother so as to reach the bottom, 
Iho KhcllH hciiif? itnpal'd by driviiij? the liii^i^ot into thf miuMy bottom. The Iiulians 
of the village obtain wator from tho stream immediately behind the houses. A stuond 
small stream in the same bay, a little further to the north, must neither be drunk from 
nor washed in, being one of the malignant or un-lueky streams. When, ignorantly, on 
the point of washing in it, I was prevented from doing so l)y a hurried remonstranec' on 
the part of some Indians near i)y, who scarcely seemed to know whether to be most 
alarmed or amused at my surprising ignorance o whose prejudice, as they were 

<|uite earnest in the matter, I was glad to give 

(0) A7'7v'-/,,„„(Ke-ri-pe-no).— This tribe was not distill u:aished from the Kos'-kT-mo in lists 
in the " Comparative Yocabulaiies " It now uninbers twenty individuals in all, and these 
have practically amalgamated with the K' s-ki-mo, living with them in their principal 
village (Hwat-.s). They wore at one time, however, evidently an important inde- 
pendent tribe, their principal village, named'iiig situated six miles east of Koprino 
Harbour of the chart, on the north side of Quatsino Sound. This village has now entirely 
disappeared, but s()uarc sepulciiral boxes, in good preservation, exist on the small island 
near it, in which the dead appear to have been deposited since the abandonment of the 
village site. They hav(^ a few rudely constructed houses on East Cove of Koprino 
Harbour, to which they resort in the summer and particularly in tlie salmon-curing time 
in the autumn. As previously noted, they were driven from Forward Inlet by the 
KwiV-ttsT-no, where, I was informed by Ow-Tt, they "came down" originally in two places, 
viz., at the hend of Browning ('reek and at Grrassy Point in Winter Harbour. This 
account of their origin does not, however, tally wilii that which states that they originated 
as runaways from the Kwfi'-triT-no, according to the tale given further on. Such con- 
tradictory .stories are not uncommonly found among the natives, who do not appear to 
have mentally compared conflicting evidence of this kind, which has be3n passed down 
by word of mouth, and has probably sulfered change in the process. 

( 10) Ki'is'-kl-mo (Kose-kc-moo) — The people of this tribe are still somewhat numerous, and 
their principal villagis which is large and well built, is situated on the point between 
Hecate Cove and Quatsino Narrows, in Quatsino Sound. They are physically much 
superior to the Kwa'-tsT-no, and better off in every respect. The village is named Hwat- 
cs. A second or " summer village " is situated on the south side of the Sound, nearly 
opposii ^ Koprino Harbour, and is named Ma-ntr. As before mentioned, the distinction 
between winter and summer villages is a somewhat arbitrary one, depending rather on 
the occupations of thi! people than on the seasons, though, to some extent, <'orresponding 
with the latter. Thus, 'u August (1885) the Kos'-ki-mo were all living in the virinter or 
principal village. 

There are a number or wooden slab tombs, of the iisual character, on islands and rocks 
near this village, and a. few canoes whi('h have been used for sepulchral purposes. A cave 
on the west side of the Narrows, not far from the village, has also been employed for the 
deposit of boxes containing the dead. * I visited this place in 1878 and again in 1885, but 
the presence of the Indians prevented close investigation. There is a considerable 
number of co...xi-boxes iu the cave rudely i)iled together, with a few carved wooden 
dishes. None arc recent, and some must be many years old, as they are falling to pieces 
from decay. 


Referring to the place of origin of the Kos'-ki-mo, Ow-Tt related that their first country- 
was at Kn-s(" (named Kao-sa-a l)y the " Nawitti," the dialect of these people differing 
somewhat) in a .small hay tlivee and a-half miles west of Cape Commerell, on the north 
coast of the island. This place is also that of the fahled origin of the Kris-kT-mo, as given 
on a subsequent page. Leaving Ko-sc a long time ago, they came round to Quatsino 
Sound, and attacked and slaughtered, to the last man, a tribe named Ho-ya, which inhabited 
the upper part of the Sound, and spoke the same (Kwakiool) language. It is handed 
down that the Ho-ya people were those who first practiced tb > peculiar deformation of the 
heads of the female children, and that they carried the practice to greater excess than the 
other tribes who sxibsequently adopted it. On asking for what reason it was so adopted, 
no very satisfactory explanation could be obtained, but there seraed to be an idea that it, 
in some way, secured the new comers i:. the possession of the country. 

From the statements given in connection with the four tribes just described, it would 
appear that tlie remote tradition of the natives places the Klas'-kaino. o.i the Sound 
of the same name and on the coast between Cape (Mok and the south entrance i>oint of 
Quatsino Sound ; the Ho-ya, on the upper part of the Sound ; the Kiaw-pino, on Forward 
Inlet, and probably also on Koprino Harbour of the chart (to which access was easy by 
way of the lagoon above Winter Ilarboui-); the Kwfi'-tsT-no, at San Josef Bay and Sea Otter 
Cove; and the Kns-kT-mo, at Kn-sr. It is probable that the two last-named tribes made 
a combined descent on the inhabitants of Quatsino Sound, for the Kus'-kT-mo must have 
passed the original Kwfi'-tsT-no strongholds on the way south, leaving their homes 
unguarded behind tliem, and this they would scarcely have dared to do except by 
agreement with the Kwa' The date of these events can only l)e conjectured. 

(11) Tld-tlhsh/ctvila and Ne-kum'-ke-lls-ln (Nawitti). — I do not certainly know whether 
these two tribes formerly inhabited separate places, but it is highly probable that they did 
so, as they are said formerly to have been very numerous. Dr. J. W. Powell, of Victoria, 
states, in the Indian Report for 1870, that the Ne-kum'-ke-lis-la formerly inhabited Cox 
Island, off Cape Scott. Their principal village was, however, not many years ago, at Cape 
Commerell, or Na-wi-tl, whence the name by which they are known to the whites. 
Both tribes lived together at Cape Commerell (according to Mr. Blenkiusop) as they now do 
at Mel'-oopa, on the south-east shore of Hope Island. Mel'-oopa is commonly known on the 
coast as the " Nawitti Village." The village at Cape Commerell stood on a small rocky 
peninsula on the east side of the Cape, to the south of which is a little bay with a fine 
sandy beach. Posts and other lemnants of the old houses are still to be seen ^188o.) It 
is mentioned as an Indian village in the Vincoiiver Pilol (1804) and, it is to be presumed, 
was still inhabited at the date of survey of this coast in 1800. These people say that 
when the number of those living as far west as Cape Scott became mucli reduced, they i. 
finally drew togethc'r for mutual protection. They still have rude huts at several places 
on the north shore of Vancouver Island, and to the south of Cape Scott, to which they 
resort for halibut-lishing. They also frequent Cox, Lanz and other islands lying olf Cape 
Scott, and the islands east of Hope Island to Miles Cone, whii h, from its form, they call 
Kel-skil-tim or " high head" (as of the Kus'-kl-mo women). The original residence of the 
Kns'-kT-mo (K':-sr) is now included in the "Nawitti" territory. 

One of the old fortified villages of this people was situated on the east entrance point 
of Port Alexander, Galiano Island, and another, according to my Indian canoe-men, ou 



the little rooky islet in the centre of the harbour. Toward the head of the harbour, on 
the east side, is a somewhat remarkable rock-shelter, formed by au overhanging cliff, 
beneath which st;veral houses were, at one time, built. 

There can, I believe, be little doubt that the bay at the village of Na-wT-tl was the 
site of the destruction of the '•Toncjuin," and massacre of the crew of that vessel. As 
this is a point of some historic interest, the 'reasons for this belief may here be briefly 
stated. The " Tonquin " was a vessel of 290 tons burden, belonging to Astor's American 
Fur Company. . After reaching Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia, in 1811, she was 
sent on a trading voyage to the north, leaving Astoria on June 5th. It is unnecessary to 
detail the circumstances leading to the atla.'kon the vessel while at anchor, the massacre 
of the crew, and the subsequent explosion of the magazine, by which the ship was 
destroyed, and a large number of natives who had crowded on board were killed. The 
lacts, so far as known, were subsequently obtained from an Indian interpreter, who alone 
escaped, and are recorded by Ross Cox and Franchere.' It has been generally stated 
that the scene of this lamentable occurrence was ^i Nootka Sound, which version Bancroft, 
in his "History of the North-west Coast" (1884), follows, while Greenow, in his " Meiuoir 
on the North-west Coast of North America" (1840), believes Clayoquot, also on the west 
coast of Vancouv.^r, to have been the place in question. The name of the locality, as 
reported by the Chehalis interpreter, is, however, sulliciently distinctive, and I can only 
account for the circumstance that its correspondence with Na-wT-tT has been overlooked, 
by the fact that this name has not usually appeared on the maps of the coast, though 
''Nahwitti Bar" and " Nahwitti Cone" occur on the detailed charts of the northern 
part of Vancouver Island. 

Ross Cox, who came into personal contact with the escaped interpreter at Astoria, 
writes : " A few days after their departure from the Columbia, they anchored opposite a large 
village, named New Wliitty, in the vicinity of Nootka, where Mr. McKay immediately 
opened a smart trade with the natives." After giving the relation of the interpreter us to 
the massacre and explosion, he describes the Cocape of three of the crew in a boat. " They 
rowed hard for the mouth of the harbour, with the intention, as is supposed, of coasting 
along the shore to the Columbia; l)ut after passing the bar, a head wind and llowing 
tide drove them back, aiid conipeUed them to Land, late at night, in a small cove," where 
they were subsequently found and killed by the Indians. 

Franchere's version of the story (Op. ril. p. 13i)) is nearly identical with that of Cox, 
except that ln! gives the name as " Nouhity." 

Though stated in the Vnncoiirer Pilot to be unsuited for an anchorage, by reason of the 
rocky bottom, the little bay on the east side of Cape Commerell, at Na-vvT-tT, is moderately 
well sheltered, and is the first place on the north sliore to the east of Cape Scott, which 
could b(> utilised as a harl)our. It would occur to no one, not possessed of an accurate 
chart, to attempt to enter Bull Harbour, in the vicinity. The mention of a bar over which 
a strong tide runs again agrees with " Nahwitti Bar " of the chart, while no bar is found 
at the entrance to Nootka or Clayoquot Sounds. Bancroft, notwithstanding the general 
completeness of his information in su<h matters, was evidently unaware of the existence 
of Na-wi-ti when he wrote:— "The Chehalis, from whom alone we have any direct 

' Narrativoofa Vnya-ol„tlio(\,liiinl.iaKivor(I8;ii.'i an.l Relation d'tm voyage il la ('6to du Nord Ouest de 
I Am(5riiiuo Septeiitriuimlo, Montreal (ISliO). 



relation, call this villa<?o Neioili/,^ which misleads Irving, who, with Franchero before 
him, the only place where Lamanse's narrative is given, loosely styles the harbour where 
the " Tonqniu " aiiehoretl, Neweetee. Now, on all this island, there is not, and never has 
been, a place called bv^ any people the ' Harbour of Neweetee.' " 

The Nawitti tribes have been singularly unfortunate since the advent of the whites. 
Their village, probably that above referred to. and named "Nev/ittee " by Bancroft, was 
destroyed by H. M. S. " Dtedalus " in 1850, and in the following summer H. M. S. 
"Daphne" attacked the same village, which had meantime been rebuilt, killing a number 
of the people. These retaliatory measures were iindertaken by order of Governor 
Blanchard in consequence of the murder of some seamen, for wiiich the Indians are not 
clearly known to have been directly responsililc.- Dr. .1. W". Powell, of Victoria, further 
states that the tribes now living together at Mel'-oopa were, " some years ago," nearly 
all killed in a raid made upon them by the Bella-Uella.' I do not know the precise date 
of this occurrence or any particulars respecting it. 

(12) Kini'i'-hi-ool, Wnlia-liir'i-ki-ool, Kirl-ha (Kwaw-keoolth, Wfiwlis-kwMW-keoolth, Kwc- 
ah-kah). — Th'^se tribes or septs now together inhabit Beaver Harbour, their village 
surrounding Fort Rupert, and being named .Sa-kish. Thoiigh Indian villages Had previously 
existed in Beaver Harbour, tlie present one has been oicupied only since the founding of 
the fort in 184!*. The three tribes above enumerated are very closely connected, and 
together are generally referred to as the Kwakiools, the same name having been adopted 
for ethnogiral purposes i'or the whole people described in these notes. The prefix vxHis, 
of the name of the second .sept, signilies "large" or "great." 

It is dilhcult to trace the former movements of the Fort Itupert people, as the tribes 
above named appear to have lived together at certain seasous, or in villages not far 
apart, from the earliest memory. The oldest known prini'ipal village was Ka-loo-kwis 
on Turnour Island, the Klri-wit-sis tribe now inhabiting it. having moved there from 
Klooitsis Island of the chart, a mile to the south, when the Fort Rupert tribes left. The 
Fort Rupert people sti'l speak of Ka-loo-kwis as their old home, and regard it with a 
species of alfection. ihis people, or a portion of them, also at one time had a village 
named Klik-sT-wi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, all trace of which has now 
disappeared. They are closely related to the Nim'-kish and lived with them at the village 
named Whulk, at the mouth of the Nimpkish River,' and at l-lTs (Alert Bay) during the 
salmon lishing season. Wlien this was past, they irsed to move over to villages at AVhite 
Beaih (Nooh-ta-muh), on a small island between the north-west pt)int of llarbledouu 
Island and Swauson Island, and to a village named Tsai-te on Mound Island, the Kwi-ha 
exclusively inhabiting the last named It is related that the Wfilis-kwa-ki-ool and KwT-ha 
separated along timeago, owingtoaciuarrel between two chiefs, oue of whom was killed 

(IJJ) Nnn'-ldAh (Nim'-kccsh). — fhe people so named now live at 1-lTs, Alert Bay, 
Cormorant Island. The Rev. A. J. Hall, whose mission church and school is at Alert 
Bay, writes the names of the tribe Num-kes, and states that it is derived from Num-hya- 

' Bancroft (ii. 155) quotes from an English translation of Franolmro's Narrativo, in whieli Xoululy of the origi- 
nal is variously remlcred " Ncwity'' and " Xovvitti." 

- See History of Uritish ( Viluiiiliiii, hy 11. II. I'raiicroft, p. 274. 

■' lioport of tho Deputy Su|x)riuteudont-(joiioral uf Iniliun atl'airii, Ottawa, 1879, p. 113. 

' This villa^'o is named Clieslakeo's Villajic l)y Vancouver in 17i)2. He represents it in a plati', and slutes 
tliat al the tiuio there wore thirty-four houses. Tlie number of ()eople is estimatoi.1 at 500, 


iT-gT-yfi, a fabulous halibut, of enormous size, which is said to cause the tide-rip off the 
point of the bay. Num is the numeral "one," this creature having "one" remarkable 

Mr. Hall also informs me that there ar(> four subdivisions or sopts amouir the NTm'-kish, 
as follows : — 

1. (iif,'ilknin chief man Klakuglas. 

2. ZizHlvva-Ia-kama-yi, " " Kla-kwri/,1. 

:i .SlHinklilyi " " Gwa-nia-kulas. 

4. Ninillcinuh " " Kum-liyiliV-iiK 

Mr. Hall furth<'r adds:— "Many other tribes have lived in this bay, notably the Fort 
Rupert Indians. The Num-krs at one time lived at the west end of Ihe bay, havin- 
removed there to be protected from the north-east winds which prevail in summer, and in the 
winter they went to the east end to escape the south-east winds. At one time they Jived 
more on the [Nimpkish] River and Lake than they now do. The name of one of their 
tribes, the NlnTlklnuh, meaning ' the men who live at or are accustomed to go to the sour.^e 
of a river.' They have now, and always appear to have had, a village about thr.'e miles 
from the mouth of the river [just below the place where the lake empties itself, on the 
west bank]. To this village they repair every C)ctob(>r to catch and cure their winter 
salmon. Many of their leg,.nds are connected with the lake and river. They formerly 
had relations with tlie Aht Indians, who came across Van.ouver Island nearly to the head 
of the lake to take salmon." 

(14) N,y-kwok-to (Nfih-kwok-to).— These are the Nakwahtoh or Nuk-wul-tuh of the 
"Comparative Vocabularies." They lately inhabited, as their prin.ipal village, a place, 
T.-'-kwok-stai-e, on the lower part of Seymour Inlet, but haA'e removed to Blundcn 
Harbour (Pa'-as) on Queen Charlotte Sound. They go in summer to Mfi'-pak-um, on 
Deserter's Island of th.. Walker Crroup, for halibut fishing, and to a place on the Storm 
Islands^ They also have a salmon fishing station on the lagoon, above Shelter Bay, 
named A-wut-sc or " the foamy jilace." 

(15) I7.nvh'-lnh and A-toa-1-Ue-la (Ta-nAck-teuch and 
of " Comparative Vocabularies." The i^rincipal village of these tribes is at Kwfi-tsi, at 
Point Macdonald, Knight's Inlet. I did not visit their village, and no particulars respect- 
ing these peoples were obtained. 

(Ifi) Tsl'-witt-ui-nuk, A-kwr-amhh and Kio1-wa-a-niik (Tsah-waw-ti-neuch, Ah-kwaw-a- 
mish and Kwaw-waw-i-nuk).— Tsa-wutti-e-nuh of "Comparative Vocabularies." These 
tribes, in winter, come together in a rather large village on the west coast of Gilford 
Island, just north of Health Bay, named Kwa-us-tums. It is built on a point, the houses 
facing two ways, and is, in this respect, somewhat unusual. The Tsa'-wut-ai-nuk are 
mu(^h ^the most numerous tribe. They go, in summer, in part to Ila-ta at the head of 
Bond Sound, in part to Kwa'-e at the h.Mid of King.-onibe Inlet. The detachment going 
to the last-named place lives first, during the salmon season, at the west angle of the inlet, 
and subsequently moves over to the east angle to gather "clover root." 

The A-kwfi'-amish resort, in summer, to A-tl-al-ko, at the head of Wakeman Sound. 

The Kwa-wa-ai-nuk go for the most part in the summer season to a village named 
Ho-ho-pa at George Point, the west end of Baker Island. A part of the tribe got"s to Kuu^ 


sta-raish, a village composod of two or three houses of very rudo construction, at the 
north entrance point of Ckiydon 15ay, Wells Passage. They engage in salmon fishing at 
the mouth of a rivtn- emptying into Emhley Lagoon close by, and also in the manufacture 
of canoes, for which they are celebrated. At Kun-sta-mish is a little rocky islet which 
has evidently, at one time, been occupied by a I'ortilied village. 

(17) Md'-me-U-li-d-kn and A>7/i'-.w-//«f) (M ilnna-lilli-kuUah and — These 
tribes reside in a large village, sul)tantially i)nilt, named Mi'm-koom-lish, and situated on 
the west end of Village Island of the char:, not far from the entrance to Knight's lulet. 
There are numbers of graves on the little islands off the village and along the shore to 
the south of it. Tradition does not rehite that these tribes liad any other princijial village. 
Tliey are the MamaleilakitTsh, or Mam-il-i-li-a-ka, of the " Comnirative Vocabularies." 

(18) K/n-vr'sis (Klfih-wit-sis) Klowitshis or Kla-wi-tsusV f " Comparative Vocabu- 
laric." — These people now live a,, the village named Kfi-loo-kwis, on the west end of 
Tumour Island, havinu' moved to that place after it was abandoned by the Fort Kiipert 
tribes, as previously noted, proi)ably aboiit 184!). They formerly resided at the west end of 
Klawitsis Island of the chart, not far oil', where the site of their old village is still clearly 
apparent. Previous to the removal of the Fort Rupert tribes, and perhaps also subsetiuent 
to that event, a part of this tribe inhabited a villaae just to the south of Health Bay, on 
the west end of Uilford Island. This is marked as a village on the charts, but all traces 
of it have now disappeared, with the exception of the old shell-heaps. The present village 
consists of ten or eleven large houses, some of which are well built. Two of them, at the 
time of my visit (188')) were adorned with designs of a large salmon, in black and red, iu 
heraldic style, extending across the whole width of the front. A small island with graves, 
decked out with streamers of calico, etc., lies opposite the village and not far off. 

(lit) M'i-lilh-i)'i (Mah-teelth-pe) Matelpa or Met-ul-p;. i of " Comparative Vocabularies." — 
The village of this tril)e, named Ftsi-kin. is situated o. Havan'ia Channel. No further 
particulars were learned respecting this small tribe. 

(20) Wri'-lit-sum, WhwT-eke, Kuu-ha, \Vl''wT-7kum and A-vd-oo (Wfiw-lit-sum, Wr-wai- 
ai-kai, Kwr-ah-kah, Wr-wai-ai-kum and Ah-wfih-oo). — These tribes are closely allied, their 
central i)lace being at Cape Mudge. Thi>y art> together know to th(Mvhites as the Li-kwil- 
tah or Uculta Indians. This name is probably adopted from that given to this peoi>l(! by 
the southern Indians of the Strait of Georgia They constitute the southern branch of the 
Kwakjf^oi people. The principle village of the W;V-lit-sum is named Koo-sfim, and is at 
the mouth of Sahnon Iviver, Vancouver Island. An old village, not now inhabited, still 
remains on the opposite side ofJohnstone Strait. 

The WT-wt'-eke constitute the premier tribe of this group their villauv, named Tsa- 
kwa-loo'-in and known to the whites as the " Uculta Village," being situated on the west 
side of Cape Mudge a sliort distance north of its extremity. When Vancouver lirst visited 
this region (179-) he noted an extensive village at Cape Mudge and describes it at some 
length (Vol. I. p. 328, Svo. ed.), and the situation is so favorable a one that it has probably 
been a central point for the Indians ever since they inhabited the coast. The present 
village is ranged along a low shore. In Vancouver's time, it was built at the summit of a 
high blulf of sand and gravel, a littli' south of the mcdern site. 

The Kwi-ha tribe is said in former times to have been a part of that of the same name 
now residing at Fort Kupert. Their principal place is Tsai-iye-uk at Arran Itapids, north 


entrance to But« Inlet. Thi.s is also described by Vancouver, who refers to it as the 
" villajye of the friendly Iiulians" (0/>, ril., Vol. I. j). 82*)). 

The principal ()la(e of the AVl-vv«"-ekum and A-wa-oo is now on Iloskyn Inlet, and is 
named Ta-ta-pow-is. The A-wa-oo formerly inhabited a village at the month of Campbell 
River, Vancouver Island, and nearly opposite to the Uculta vilhige. They have since 
b( come merged in the WT-wc-ckuni tribe. The latter are named Wl-vvT-kum in the 
" Comparativt! Vocabularies." 

III. — Mode ok Life, Ahts and Custom.s of the Kwaktool. 

The dwellings, utensils, canoes, mode of life, and food of the coast tribes of British 
Columbia, have been so frequently described before, and there is so much in common 
between them, ])articularly lu'twei-n the northern tribes taken as a group, of which the 
Kwakiool people forms a mcnnber, that it in scarcely necessary to enter into detail respect- 
ing these matters. investigation will doubtless reveal many intc^resting points of 
difference, but the main facts as described for the Haida will ai)ply almost equally well 
to the Kwakiool. (Sec Report of Progress, Geol. Surv. Can., 1878-70.) Notwithstanding 
diversity of language and dialect, these coast people form a single group in respect to arts, 
and to a less extent in regard to customs and traditions. The useful arts and modes of 
construction have evidently been readily adopted by various tribes from whatever source 
they may have originated. In dexterity and constructive skill, as well as in artistic 
representation, the Haida peojile, however, excell nil tlie others. 

The villages consist usually of a single row of houses ranged along the edge of the 
beach and lacing the sea. The houses are generally large, and are used as dwelling 
places by two or more families, each occupying a (corner, which is closed in by tem- 
porary partitions of split cedar planks, six or eight feet in height, or by a screen of cloth on 
one or two sides. Each family has, as a rule, its own lire, with cedar planks laid down near 
it to sit and sleep on. When, however, they are gathered in the houses of smaller and ruder ) 
construction, at summer llshing places, etc., a single lire may serve for a whole household. ' 
The liouseliold ell'ects and property of the inmati>s are piled up round the walls, or stowed 
away in little cupboard-like jyartitioned spaces at the sides or back of the house. Above the 
lire belonging to each family is generally a frame of poles or slips of cedar, upon which 
clothes may be hung to dry, ;uul dried lish or dried clan..,s are stored in the smoke. Eating 
is a perpetually recurring occupation, and smoke appears to ooze oirt by every chink and 
cranny of the roofs of the largi* houses, the whole upper part of which is generally lilK'd 
with it. The houses of the Kwakiool are not so large or so well constructed as those of 
the Haida, tlitmgh if Vaiu'ouver's representations of them are to be accepted as accurate, 
they are more commodious and bettei built now than in his time. TIk^ introduction of 
metal tools may have produced a change of tiiat kind. Wood-carving is practiced, but not 
so extensively as among the Haida, and carved totem-posts are not nearly so numerous nor 
so large or artistic in design as among that people. Such examples of posts of this kind 
as occur are also invariably separate I'rom the houses, and no instance of a carved post 
luiming the door of a house was seen in any of the villages. These carved posts 
are divided by the Indians into two classes, those outside the houses being named llCt-us, 


those inside the hcuses tIa-'/h'. Carved posts of th(> liist-nained kind, ijenerally those which 
support the ponderous main beams of .he roof, are rather common in the Kvvakiool village. 
The fl-'signs are frequently grotesque and the carving generally very rude. The ends oi 
the main beams which project at the front o<'the house are also not infrequently carved. 
Large painted desij:;ns, generally in black and red, though oft-n vvi!h the iiddition of blue 
and other colours, are common on the fronts of houses. These are m the usual conven- 
tional or heraldic style — involved, but often neatly executed. Such designs include the 
thunder bird, the monsters Tse-rkTsh or ST-sT-ootl, salmon, whales, "coppers," etc. 

The most valuable possession of the Kwakiool and other lorthcrn tribes is the " ( opper " 
or copper plate ofwhich the peculiar form is illustrated in my Kcj)ort on the Queen Charlotte 
Islands, already cited (p. ISFi B.) A conventional lace is often scraped out upon the 
surface of the " copper". The most valued coppers are very old and have been handed 
down for generations. These are known as lli'i-kwn. Smaller " coppers" of modern manu- 
facture are named tli'i-tloli-^iim. A copper, to })e of value, should ]w of equal thickness 
throughout, except at the edges, where it should bi^ thicker than elsewhere. , When struck, 
it should emit a dull sound and not ring. The dentalium shell, named a-ll-n, was former- 
ly ixsed as a <-urrency, but as with other coast tribes, the blanket is now the unit of value 
A somewhat inferior quality, known in the Ihidson's l?ay Company parlanc<' as a " two 
and a-half point " blanket, is the standard, and is wamvd iil'-luil-iix-kiim. 

The Kwakiool employ the fathom, measured between the oiitstretehed hands across 
the chest, as their principal measure, counting innn-jiuii-k-i "one fathom,'' miUl-pini-lil "two 
fathoms," and so on. The hall- fathom, measured from the middle ol' the chest, is named 
niik-a-]i''>l' . The distance from the elbow to the end of the outstretched fingers is also used 
as a measure under the name of Icl'i-kiru-p'i-al. The next smallest unit of measurement is 
a span, reckoned from the tip of the thumb to that of the outstretched second finger. This 
is named " one span with the long linger," nnm-i)un-kh-lit-hiini>-l>il-hiin-(i-e. The short span is 
similarly measured between the tips of the tlium)> and first linger, i\nd known as w«/;(-/y//«- 
lih-huns-tmn-a-e or " one span with the short linger," and soon, changii g the alhxed numeral. 

In addition to the ordinary mode of counting niim "one," mall "two," in-looh "three." 
;«n " four," and so on, then- are various nnognised modes of enumerating articles of 
diflerent kinds. Thus in counting fiat objects, such as l)lankets, the Kwakiool says 
num-uh-s'i, matl-nh-s't , etc. In counting circular or spherical objects, such as money or balls, 
he habitually uses num-akum, malt-aiim, in-lnoh-siriii, etc. In counting persons, the numeral 
is again changed to tvm-ook, ma-look, 'm-look, mo'i-ki'i, sl-ki-ok, et(\ A^ain, in counting lots, 
each made up of a like number of obje>ts, a diflerent termination is ai)peiuled to the 
numeral thus, — nuni-uh-stdlfi "one lot," ma-n-lnh-sti'iU'i "two lots," in-tooh-slul't "three lots," 
mo-sli'il'i " four lots," xlk'-l-a-ddli'i " ii\& lots," et<\ " One to each," " two to eai'h," etc., are 
expressed by ti'iU'-niDii-la-hi, ma-e-mall-ln-lii, //all-iii-tooh-la-bi, ma-e-mno-la-hi, s'i-xl-ki-a-ln-ln, 
The first two ordinal numbers are expressed by k'l-'il'-a-k'i-wa '■ fir^ji," m'l-kil-u-h'i-k'i-al- 
a-kl-wa " next to first." Thesi>, however, ajjpear to be seldom ii.sed, and it is diflicult to 
explain the idea to the Indians. Tlie numeral adverbs " once," twice," thrice," are nan- 
puH-a, mal/-pii)/-ii, i/i-fooh-jian-n. 

When a child has grown large enough to leav(? the little cradle, tied into which 
it spends most of its earlier days, usage demands that the cradle, together with all the 
wrappings and bark forming the bedding and its appendages, shall be carefully collected 


and carried to a recognised place of deposit. This custom is not now strictly adhered 
to with regard to the cradle, hut is still ohligatory in respect to the bedding, which is 
generally neatly iiacked in a box or basket, and laid away never to be touched again. 
Every village prol)ably has such a place of deposit. That for the Ka-loo-kwis village is 
in a sheltered re(!ess in limestou'! cliffs at.the western extreme of Harbledown Island. It 
is numed ki-iitf-ii-fcwlxh' or " c(>.iar liark de;)osit ph'e." Another similar recess in a cliff, 
filled with cradle wrappings, exists on tlic south side of Pearse Peninsula, east end of 
Broughton Island. At Mel'-oopa and at Ilwat-fs' then are similar pieces, that at the first 
named village being bene, th logs, at the back of the village, and not on the shore. 

When a young man desires to obtain a girl for a wife, he unift bargain with her parents, 
and pay to her lather a considerable iiuml)cr of'. Owing to the great desire to 
a(!cumulate blankets for tlie purposes oi' tho />(>/ latch or donation fjast, together with the 
scarcity of marriageable girls, the parents arcs very strict and exacting in this respect. 
The young man is often still I'urther lleeced by his wife, who. at the instigation of her 
parent.s, nuiy seize upon some real or imaginary cause ol' grievance and leave him. The 
father then exacts a further blanket payment for her return, and so on. 

Just as among the Ilaida and other coast tribes, a man must give a potlatch (Kwakiool 
pi(s-(i or ya-liooit) on assuming a name. To obtain a name I'or his child a potlatch must be 
be held, and at every subsecjuent occasion on which a man gives a potlatch, he assumes a 
new name, which is generally that of one of his ancestors. He is then known only by 
his last assumed name, which is regarded as his chief or most honourable one. This cus- 
tom naturally introduces much complication in the matter of tracing out genealogy, or in 
arriving at the names of the actons in I'ormcr events. 

Medicine or sorcery as practiced by these people for the cure of disease, is much the 
same as among other trilx's of the coast, though the peculiar tubular bone charm, employed 
by the Ilaida aiul Tshmisian, was not here observed. Ihe sorcerer may be either a man 
or a woman, latned for skill in such matters, to whom their vocation may have been indi- 
cated by dreams or visions. Medicines may be given to the patient by his friends, but 
the sorcerer dors not deal in drugs, devoting his attention solely to exorcising the evil 
principle causing the disease. This is done by singing incantation songs, the use of a 
rattle and vigorous sucking of the i>art all'ccted, whicli in many cases is kept \\\> for hours 
and frequently repeated, and must always be handsomely paid ibr. Sickness is still, 
generally, and was formerly at all times, attributed (o the witchcraft of enemies. Certain 
persons were known to possess the power and were called r-a-k-i-nooh. Such a malignant 
person, wishing to l)c witch an enemy, is supposed to go through a series of complicated 
and absurd ceremonies, of which the following is an outline : — An endeavour is first made 
to procure a lock of hair, some saliva, a piece of the sleeve and of the neck of the dress, or 
of the rim of the hat or head-dress which has absorbed the perspiration of the person to be 
l)ewitched. These are placed with a small piece of the skin and llcsh of a dead man, dried 
and roasted before the fire, and rul)bed and pounded together. The n\ixture is then tied 
up in a piece of skin or cloth, which is covered OA'er with spruce gum. The little package 
is next jdaced in a liunian bone, which is broken for the puri)ose, and afterwards carefully 
tied together and put within a human skull. This again is j^laced in a box, which is tied 
up and gummed over and then buried in the ground in such a way as to be barely covered. 
A fire is next built nearly, but not exactly, on the top of the box, so as to warm the whole. 


Then tho evilly disposed man, bcutins? his hnad aj^ainst a tree, namos niul douonncos his 
enemy. This is douo at niij-iit or in the early morning, and in seeret, and is rrecjuently 
repeated till the enemy dies. The actor must not smile or laugh, and must talk as little 
at. possiblti till the spell has worked. 11' a man has leason to supposi^ that he is being 
pruetieed on in tins way, he or his iViends must endeavour u> lind the deposit and eaic^- 
t'ully unearth it. Roujih handling ol' the box may prove immediatt ly fatal. It is then 
cautiously un\vrapp'>d and the contents aie thrown into the j -a. If 'he evilly disposed per- 
son vas discov 'red, he was in farmer years immediately killed, h after making up the 
little package of relics as above noted, it is put into a frog, the mouth of which is tied up 
before it is releiised, a peciiliar sickness is produced whii h causes the abdomen of tht! per- 
son agi.ii'st whom the sorcery is directed to swell. 

After death the body is imiwediately coHined, noi; a moment being lost. Should 
death occur at night the collin-l)ox is bet outside the house at once, till daylight 
may admit of its beiui lispo.sed of The face of the dead is lirst washed and the hair 
combed, and then the lace and head are painted with vermilion and tlm body wrai)ped 
in blankets by near relatives or friends. It is then jnit into any box of a suitable size 
that can be found, generally one of those used for the storage of house effects or dried lish. 
The box so employed is named lik-'i-'t'-txe. The body is doubled up, and no hesitation is 
felt in using violence towards it in order to press it into the box. The yraves of the Kvva- 
kiool are of two principal kinds : little scaffolds to which the collin-box is la.shed, high upon 
the branches of iir trees and known as iiik-/)"-/ch ; and tombs built of slabs of wood on tho 
ground. Small tent-like erections of calico are now oi'teu sul)stituted for the latter, and 
the bodies of relatives or friends, dying at diiferent times, are in both cases often phved 
together. If a person of importance or much respected, a canoe (previously rendered un- 
serviceable) is often drawn up and deposited near the grave. The trees used for the 
d<»posit of the dead ar«» often quite close to the village, but when a tomb is plan'd ui)on 
the ground, it is generally on some rocky islet or insular rock, which may be further away, 
but is still in sight from the village. Such islands become regular cemeteries. Graves 
in trees are generally festooned with blankets or streamers of cloth, and similar append- 
ages are allixed to poles in the vicinity of graves on the groi;nd. Kouffhly carved human 
ligures in wood are also often added. Tliesc sometimes hold in their hands wooden 
models of the copper plates which are so mirch valued by these ncnthern tribes of the 
coast. Similar models are also at times nailed up on posts near the graves. At Pa'-as 
(Blunden Harbour) the upper part of one of these coi)i)ers (but one of inferior value) was 
found broken in two and allixed at a grave in token of grief The lower part was not 
found, and had probably been used before on some similar occasion. At Fort Rupert and 
Alert Bay, bodies are now Trequently buried in the ground, owing to the irlluence of the 
whites. Su'h a grave is named tilc-'-'s. 

After the body has been deposited in the grave, a fire is made near it, in wiiich some 
food is burnt, such as dried salmon, fat, dried clams, etc., and all the smaller articles 
belonging to the deceased are thrown into the fire at the same time. The canoe, house, 
,ind other larger effects are then taken possession of by the son, father, daught(>r, wife or 
brother of the dead, generally in the order named. The wife or husband of the deceesed 
goes into special mourning for a period of one month among the Queen Charlotte Sound 
tribes, or for four months among the Kos'-kl-mo. The survivor lives during this i>3riod 


separately in n very smiiU hut, which is built behind the houMe, eating and drlnkini^ alone, 
and using lor thai, purpobi) Lslu-s not employed by other members ol' the tribe. The near 
rehitivesi of the deatl eut their hiiir short, or if woinun, cut a small portion of it oil". A 
widow marks her faee with soratelies, in token of mourning ; among the Kns'-kl-mo she cuts 
her face with a shell, aiul ;'oi',s no <;• 'iwally mariy auain ior at least n year. In some cases, 
about a month after dealli ihe men of tiie 'rii^; collect in a hous(> to sing a song which 
relates the deeds and virtues of the d^eased This is named s'i'-lumu or liirai'-um, the 
"iryiug song." Children are sometimes, iu the same way, m)uvned for by the women. 
When at Mel'-oopa ("Nawitti") iu 1878, the tjrst sound we h-ard at d.iybreiik, was the 
crying and lamentation of the women, the song being taken up lir.-,l by one and then by 
another, in dill'erent parts of the village. This, it was ascertained, wu; iu cousequen(;e of 
the death of a boy which had occurred some time before. 

V. — Custom of the "Potlatch" oh Donation Feast. 

In my notes on the Ilaida people of the Queen Charlotte Islands, the facts which 
could be obtained as to the po/lafrli or donation feast of these Indians and of the Tshimsian 
were detailed. This custom is common to all the coast tribes of this part of North 
America, and has extended, though in a less marked form, into the interior of the con- 
tinent. The main i'eatures of the custom are probably identical, or nearly .so, among all 
the tribes of the British Columbian coast. They are certainly nearly tlie .same with the 
Ilaida, Tshimsian and Kvvakiool peoples Amonsj the latter, this ceremony is known as 
]ius-a or i/ti-hooif, these terms probably denoting special forms of the ceremony appro- 
priate to certain occasions. In speaking of the cu.stom, I will, however, use the commonly 
recognised word /lot/dlrh as being the most convenient. 

The rules governing the potlatch and its attendent ceremonies have grown to be so 
complicated that even those persons most familiar with the natives can scarcely follow it 
in all its details, and it is sometimes difficult for the natives themselves to decide certain 
points, leaving openings for roguery and sharp practice with the more unscrupulous. 

Mr. George Blenkinsop, who has been for many years among the Kwakiool, informs 
me that the custom was formerly almost entirely conlined to the recognised chiefs, but that 
of late years it has extended to the people generally, and become very much commoner 
than before. The Rev. A. .T. Mall bears testimony to i,h(^ same effect. ' With the chiefs, it was 
a means of acquiring and maintaining prestige and power. It is still so regarded, but has 
spread to all classes of the community and became the recognised mode of attaining 
social rank and respect. Many of the younucr people in the Kwakiool villages are willing 
to abandon the custom, but the majority, and particularly tln^ older people, are in its favour 
— a circumstance probably largely explicable by the fact that nearly all are creditors or 
debtors under the system. 

The pernicious effect of the extension and frequent recurrence of the potlatch, arises 
chiefly from the ciri;umstance that every member of tlu^ tribe, male or female, is drawn 
into it. If not themselves endeavouring to accjuire property for a potlatch, every one is 
pledged to support, to the utmost of their means, Some more prominent or ambitious 
individual. Thus, wives even rob their husbands to assist a brother, or some other 



rolativo, in amussins? blimkcts pn-puratory to a struffirlo for social prepmiinMii'o, and should 
thi> aHpjriint he hcati-n, would led morlilit'd and asliauii'd. All In-couic inisorly and savinn', 
hut to no <,'ood puip.>s(>, and (hf irrcat y:atii('riMi'ts of nativfs which occur when the pot- 
latch taki'H place, lead not only to waste of property ana time, hut to troubles of many 
I other kinds. 

As a particular instance of the custom, let us suppose that a N'Tm'-kish, of Alert Hay, 
I has collected toyelher as his own, or obtained control of, say, live hundri'd blankets, and 

' wishes to make a potlati;h to the Fort Rupert tribes. He jfoes to the Fort Rupert villaiye 

j and makes known his intention of distributing- a thousand blankets at a certain dale. 

He bef^ins by lendini? out his stock of live hundred blankets, yivinLr lari^er numbers to 
those who are well otf, and particularly to such as are known to havi' the intention of 
I giving a potlatch in return. This loan is reckoned a debt of honour, to be paid with 

interest at the jiroper lime. It is usual to return two blankets for every one borrowed, 
and Indians with liberal ideas may return even more. Tiie ufreater the number of 
blankets loaned out to any individual, the more he knows tlnit his wealth and standing' 
are appreciated by the stranger, who. laler on. taking with him a thousand or more 
blankets returns to his home at Alert Bay ; at which pla-e also, in du(( lime, the Fjrt 
Rupert i>eople arrive. The potlatch does not, however, then occur at once, as much i>re- 
liminary talk, ceremony, and feasting are in order, and the Nun'-kish must entertain I'uir 
, visitors — first one and then another volunteering feasts and diversions. It may also, 
very probal)ly, happen that delay arises bi'cause the man about to give the potlat<'h has 
not obtained the requisite number of blankets, many being owing to him and others 
having been promised by friends whom lie is ol)liged to dun. The Fort Ruiiert people, 
becoming weary of waiting, lend all the wciiiht of their in lluence to coerce the debtors 
into payment, and these may, in the end, be forced to borrow from others to enable them 
to redeem their pledges — all such arrangements leading to interminable haguling and 
worry. At lenylh, however, all is ready, and with the accompaniment of much bombastic 
speech-making and excitement, the of blankets is distributed in exact proportion to 
the social position of those taking part — or, what is the same thing, in proportion to their 
individual contributions. 

To surpass the man who has last given a potlatch, and acquire a superior standing to 
\ his, the next aspirant must endeavour to give away more than a thousand blankets, and 

will strive as soon as possible lo be in a position to do so. 

The nominal excuses i'or giving a potlatch are numerous, the most common being, 
however, the wish to assumt; a new and more honourable name. The name {proposed to 
be taken passes by common consent, if the potlatch shall have been successful and on a 
sulhcient scale. 

Should an Indian wish to humiliate another lor any reason, he may destroy a great 
number of blankets or much other valued property. This, according to custom, leaves 
his adversary in debt to the amount of the property made away with. It then behoves 
the debtor to bring oui and destroy a !ike or if possible a greater amount of property. If 
he is not able to do this, he lies under the reproach of having been worsted by his foe. 

The present principal chief of the Fort Rupert people is now known, since his pot- 
latch last completed (autumn of 1885), as Na-ka-pun-thim, and aspires to, and well 
maintains, the pocition of premier chief of the Kwakiool people. He is apparently a man 


of groat ontTgy of charii(t(>r, hut niiturally hiis many oiit'inics, iiinnii!,' whom ftni to be 
rcM'konod tho chit'ls of iiiOKt of llic other tribes. One of these, the Nim'-kiHh eliief, to 
attain a superior position to Na-ka-i)un-thim, hitely broke up and destroyed a very valu- 
able "eopper," leaving Na-ka-piin-thim in iin inferior position till he could obtain and 
destroy a similarly Viilual)le pic'ce. Not himself having a suilable "chopper," the NTm'- 
kish chief collected his means to purchase one which was in the posses.sion of a young 
man of the tribe named Wa-nook. This "copper" bad been purchased by Wa-nook's 
father from Wa-nook's wife's mother, in ord(!r that his son might assume an important 
place in the tril)e as ils possessor. TIk^ various tril)es were assembled at the Fort liupert 
village for a potlatch, and after haranguing tiicm, Na-ka-pun-tliim pul)liclj oliered 1,400 
blankets for the " copper," but Wa-nook still held back for a higher pri('e. The natives 
assembled were divided into two parties, and were much excited, calling each other by 
opprobious names and some enconriiying Na-ka-pun-thim, others his adversarit^s. Mr. Hall 
describes Na-ka-pnn-thim as coming out before the people accompanied by a man 
hideously dressed and wearing a mask, drawing out ami exhibiting a scalp in each 
hand and saying to his principal rival : "These are enemies of mine whom I have killed, 
and in a like manner I will crush you." Then, even l)ef()r(^ he iiad quite completed the 
purchase of the "copper," he l)egan to break a large pieie from one corner, and as the 
"copper" in question was undoul)ledly mjre valuable than that previously mutilated by 
the Nim'-kish chief, he, according to Indian ideas, otFected his triumph, changing his 
name from "Snh-witti" to that abov , niven, and — as is sometimes done — erecting apostiu 
commemoration of the event, on which, in this instance, the " copper " itself was elevated. 

VI.— Traditions, Fotjcloue and Remchon. 

The traditions and stories of the Kwakiool pt'ople appear to centre chiefly about Cape 
Scott, the north-west extremity of Vancouver Island. Almost every feature of the coast 
in this vicinity has some tale appended to it. It is the point ideutilied with the appear- 
ance of their culture-hero and may be assumed to be the site of their earliest home, in so 
far as this can be ascertained througti the distorted medium of tradition. The now familiar 
figure of the culture-hero, is, with these people, as with most others, that about which 
innumerable stories have been grouped by a natural process of aggregation, the central 
idea being now scarcely sullicieni supjwrt for the whole. The name of this hero, like 
other words in the language, is somewhat changed in the various dialects. After hearing 
it pronounced by a number of individuals in the northern part of Vancouver Island and 
on the west coast, I adopted" Kan-r-a-ko-luh " as the most correct rendering.' The " Na- 
witti " people use a form more ni'arly rendered by ' Kan-e-a-kwe-a," while neither of these 
names were known to a Kwri-wa-ai-nuk Indian, who gave me " Na-la-no-koom-kT-la," ex- 
plaining it as meaning the " lirst man." Rev. A. J. Hall writes the name " KunTkrlag." 
All these renderings are very probably derived from the ordinal number " first " given to 
me as kl-fd'a-ki-wa by a Fort Rupert Indian." __^ 

' Dr. Friinz Boa.s writes llic niiiue, of tlui culture-liord " KniiiUiliik." Scionoo, 'Marcl), 1S87. 

' Om> cannot l)iit Ik- striicl;, liowevor, wiili tlie closo rosoinliliuico of tliis word to hmthi, tlie Hawaiian word 
for " man." Is it witliin llio boiind.s of poKsibility, tliat tlio story of tho arrival of this cntlnro-lioro depends on some 
liistorical event [lerliaps eonnected witli tlie [xiriod of roinarlial)le moveniont and advonlurons sea voyages whicli 
Fornander shews to liave ocuurrod in the Polynesian region, about the eleventh or twelfth centuries of our era? 


From an iiitoUij^oiit "Nivvvitti " Iiidinn, the followinij 1)ri('f acconnJ of Knii-r-a-ko-hih 
wan obtiiiiifd. Kiin-t'-a-ki'-liih, a vi-ry powcrrul iHiiiy, aiuii'iitly iiiliahitid Cape Scott. 
At that tiino, tliouLrli many animals cxiNlcd, and Noinc Ix'ini^H ifHomhlin^ men, ihoro wero 
no propt'rly Ibrracd nu«u. Lt>a\'in^ Capo Siott, whuro ho had a very lurgo houNc, Kan-r-a- 
ke-lub set ont on a i>il!ifriniai^(' eastward, alonjj the shoro. lli' liist met witli a man of 
Hom;. kind who was engaged in sliarpening a knii'e upon a slone, and having htcn 
uucivilly received by him, he took away the knii'e, and giving the owner two . ds on the 
head, antlers grew out. Then witli some ol' the poNto which was upon the xtone, he 
marked the rump of this being, who went away transl'ormed into a deer. 

Further on ho I'ound a lot ol' women without any trace ol' eyes, cooking cel-grasB 
(Zosterii) roots at a Kre. lie took (he lood away and h'lt them j.roping about for it I'or 
some time. Wlien at hngth mo spoke to them, they received him well, in conNeijneiKc ol' 
which he provided th mu with eyes. 

Next he came across a man witii innumerabii' mouths, all ol which l)ut one he closed. 
In these days also there were beings with sexua' organs on their foreheads. This he also 
rectilied. and alter doing numy other wonderl'ul works returned to Cape Soott. At last 
Kan-r-a-ke-luh left Cape Scolt finally, goini; very far away and disappearing altogether 
from mortal ken. so that the people supposed the sun to represent him. Kan-r-a-ke-luh 
had a father named Ma-kwans whom he turned into a heron. His mother was named 
Kla-klan-ilh, and she either was originally a woodpecker or was by her son changed 
into that form. My informant was not very dear on this jjoint. 

A higli rock on the coist opposite the end of Nahwitti Bar is said to represeni a man 
who was changed into stone by Kan-r-a-ke-luii, during his journey, for some misconduct. 
The natives now throw an olfering toward this rock in passing and address some words 
to it, asking for favourable weathi-r. In the little bay immediately to the east of Cape 
Scott is a Hat greenstone boulder, on the beach, upon which is a natural depression closely 
resembling in form and size the print of a left foot. This is said to have been made by 
Kan-r-a-ke-luh when still a mere boy, and thi> Indians say that the other end of the stride 
— a right foot-mark — is to be seen on Cox Island. No one dares to put his foot on either of 
these marks, as it is certain to result soon in misfortune or death. 

A much more detai' 1 arcount of Kan-r-a-ke-luh and his works was obtained from 
Ow-Tt, the (rhief of the Kwa'-tsT-no, who appeared to be well versed in such lore and sure of 
the faith whi<h was in him. Accordini;' to Ow-Tt, the father of th(! hero was named Ma- 
kwans, the mother Ilaia-tlela-kuh, and he had also a younger brother named Nr-no-kwish. 
The father and his sons "came down" or appean'd at Cape Scott, and lived thi re, the 
eld(>r brother killing whales for the support of the younger. Alter a time, Kan-r-a-ke-luh 
left his home at Cape Scott He walked eastward along the shore and did not go in a 
canoe. When he came to Kn-se he saw a young girl, and asked her to go and fetch some 
water for him to drink. She refused, saying that a terrible monster named TsT-a-tish 
(Tse-a-kTsh of the Ma'-me-li-li-a-ka, said to live beneath the sea and swallow canoes, 
etc.) guarded the water and killed all who endeavoixred to approach. At length, how- 
ever, she was persuaded to go. She put ^n her belt, which represented the double-headed 
serpent s'-scnti (s'-s^-oo// of the KwA-wa-ai-nuk Indians) and set out. Immediately the 
monster, which had an immense mouth, swallowed her; but Kan-r-a-ke-luh was close 
behind. He began to sing a song which caused the creature to burst open and forthwith 



all thn Kns ino pi-oplo caiiKi ont. Thoy wiilkod at lirNt in ii one-sided lunniior, their 
jointN beiii^,' iinpeii'eclly i'ornied, l)nt Kiin-r-n-ke-luli iviiiedicd lhi,s, and tiuiN orifrinuted 
tile K<in'-ki-in() tiilie. ' 

Further on, Kun-r-ii-ke-luh Ibund a man playinp in tho surf on the shore. Ho would 
allow the waves to roll him over and over on the bear' singing meanwhile thus, Yo ha 
ha hi'. Vximx the sound, Knn-r-a-ke-luli .mpposed tliiit there uiunI i>e a nuinher of people, 
hut the creature had iniiiiuieinhle iiiniitlis, all over hi.s body When Kau-r-a-ke-luli spoko, 
remonstrating with him lor liis i'ooliish conduct, he was answered at onoo by all the 
mouths. Kan-r-a-ke-luh li»en passed his hands over the body of this (Teaturo dosing all 
the mouths l)ut one, ami coMvertintr him into a properly iormed miin. 

Al'lerwanls Kan-r-a-ke-luh went on to S;"i-kisii (liciiver Ilurhour), Jlere lived a man 
and his son ; and Kan-f-a-ke-luh was about to pass along tho shore in front of their house, 
whiih '""ce'l the sea. The son, however, who was a very powerful medioim* man, said to 
hi'i fat) "So this is he who is to put the world all in order again." He luid v blanket 
filled \vu'. ditienses wiiicli \\>- had cniijurcd awiiy from the sick, and .shaking this blanket 
toward Kan-c-a-ke-luh, the latter wa.s immediately overcome by the influence of the 
diseases and fell into a swoon or sleep. This happened four tim((.s, when at last Kan-c-a- 
ke-luh had to content him.self with u'oing round behind the house, which it appears he 
was allowed lo do unmolested. 

Next Kan-e-a-ke-luh heard that some way ui) the Nimpkish lliver (Kwa-no) there 
lived a man who had three daughters, and that these girls who had heard of his fame, 
were makinu' love songs al)out him and singing them. On arriving at the river and get- 
ting near the house of liiese people he took olf one of his shortest lingers, and made of ita 
man, into the form of which he entered. This man (now Kan-e-a-ko-luh) was covered 
with sores from head to foot, and with a blanket wrapped .^bout him waited at tho edge 
of tho river where the girls came down to the water. Soon the three girls came down to 
the ri er to bathe. The youngest, walking lirst, spii'd Kan-c-a-ke-luh, and exclaimed, 
"See this little slave," and the eldest sister replied, " So you have found a slave now." 
When the sisters went in to bathe, tiie two elder called upon Kau-c-a-ke-luh tc wait 
on them, saying, "Come wash my back," and ,-io on, but the youngest did not do so and 
would not let him toucii licr, so he .said "She must be my wife." He married her, and 
after a son had been born, he went away from the Nimpkish Wiver, leaving his wife and 
son Ironi whom the NTm'-kish people originated. 

After performing thes" an<l other tasks, Kan-c-a-ke-luh returned to Cape Scott, his 
old home. Tiiere he found that his i)rotlu'r had died, nieanvvhih^, his bones oidy remain- 
ing. Then Kan-r-a-ke-luli said " You have been sleeping quite a long time, my brother," 
and sprinkling the bones with water, brought him to life again. 

Hut the father and mother of Kan-r-a-ke-luh acted very badly toward him and his 
brother. When they had cauglit plenty of salmon, the old man would raise an alarm that 
people were coming in canoes to put Kan-e-a-ke-luh to death, and when he and his 
brother had run away into the woods to hide themselves, the father and mother would 
boil and eat all the salmon. So Kan-c-a-ke-luh became very angry, and one day he and 
his brother Did themselves in the Then the father said, "So these boys have gone 
again," and at once began to cook and eat their salmon. Kan-e-a-ke-luh then him 


with nn tirvow imkI silso killod his mothor. ihaiia;ing his fathi'v into ii horoii and his mother 
into a woodiHH'kor. 

Tb-'se are some of the chioracts which Kaii-r-a-ko-Uih lu'rlbrmod. After linishiiii>' all 
his works, he married "a woman ol'tlie sea" and went away over the ocean and was no 
more seen. This, ()\v-it said, he did tliat no one in future should " liave his name " 
as one of theirs. Tlie wife of one of the chiefs at Na-wi-ti once assumed iiis name, 
but she was lost from a canoe, and drowned, and no one iuis dared ever since to take it.« 
The youni^er brother, however, did not disappear, and so fome j)ersons still use 
Ids name. Thus ()\v-:t, lor example, lias tliis name us one of his. Tiiou^'h Kan-c-a-ke-luh 
never returned, he had a son wiio came hack named Kla-soo-tr-walis, and all the salmon, 
ber^-ies and other ijood kinds of food came with him, "and this is the reason that they 
return year by year to the present day." ()\v-lt claims himself to be a descendant of this 
son, as does also the Ki's'-ki-mo clijcf 

The Rev. .V. .7. Hall, several times referred to before, was kind enough to make 
enquiries for me as to the myths of the Nim-kish tril)e. Of Kan-r-a-ke-luh he writes as 
below. This account it will be seen does not perfectly au'rce with either of those above 

" Kani-kr-lfiq had no wife and no child, and beloni-ed to no tribe. No one knows his 
origin or whence he came. He never travelled in a canoe. l)ut always walked. Re is 
regarded as a deity and as the creator. who blasphemed him, he turned into birds, 
beasts, and lishes : l^nt those who s[ioke well < i him. he turned into men and protected. 
The heron was once a man who despised lv.'inT-kc-la(|. It was KfinT-ke-lrHj who stole lire 
and water and gave them to the Indians. The chief who possessed lire, lived at the 'edge 
of the day,' viz.. the rising of the sun. Wiien tlie friends of this chief were dancing 
round the lire. KfiuT-kc-lrui ai)peared in the form of a deer, and with a bun<h of gum wood 
between his antlers, joined the dancers. At a given signal IVe-u his friends outside, he 
dipped his head, and tlie sticks iuniti'd. He leapt across the tire and rushed from the 
house, scattering the stolen lire everywhere. He was pursued, but his friends had pla<e(l 
lialibut on his track, which caused his jyursuers to trip up. This accounts for the short 
black tail of the deer, burnt of course by tlu> lire. 

" Krini-ke-lri(| also stole water from the ' Nawitii ' chief, who alone possessed it. To 
do this, he assiuned a form of a ravi'U, but borrowi'd the bladder of a sea-lion (g/'Av/w). 
The water was in a hole in a stoiii'. a foot in diameter, He was allowed to take a little, 
and when the chief went to drive him oil', he begged for more, because his thirst was not 
quenched. Having consumed all there was, he Hew oil", and vomited '.he water every- 
where. Where the water dropped, rivers were formed, and ever since (here has been an 
abundance of water." 

The following deluge myth was obtained, in 187S, from Hnni-tshit, a chief of the 
Ilailtzuk division of the Kwakiool, at Ka-jia (Kill ite Village of charts). Yeo Island, Mil- 
bank Sound : — Very long ago there occurred a gri'at Hood, during whiiji the sea rose so 
as to cover everything with the exception of three mountains. Two of thest? are very 
high, one near Bella-Hella. the other api>arentlv to the norlh-i'ast of that place. Tlie 
third is a low but prominent hill on Don Island, named Ko-Kwus by the Indians ; this 
they say rose at the time of the Hood so as to remain above the water. Nearly all the 
people iloated away in various directions on logs and trees. The people living where 


Kit-kiitlii now is, for iiistiiiicc, (liillcd to l<'.)it, liupert, wliilt^ the Fort 1lui)(>rfN dvifti'd to 
Kil-Uatlii. Soiii(> oi llic jti'oplo luul smull ciiiuu'is, ;iiul l)y anclioiinj;- llu'ui iniinaj^vd to 
roiiu" down noiir liomc when tlic walfr .subsided. Of llic llaiUzak thero roniaincd only 
three individual.s: two men and a woman, with adoi-'. One ol'lhc men hindcd at Ka- 
pa, a Ki'<-ond at anotlicr villauv .silc, not tar from Bi'Ua-I'.i'lla, and tlic woman and doi-- at 
]5clhi-l!t'lla. From tin' marriaij^i' of tlu> woman with tin' do-^', the ndlaHi'lla Indians 
originated. When this Hood had .suhsidcd there was no i'resh water to he found, and the 
people were very thirsty. The raven, however, shewd them how, after eat in<f, to chew 
I'raunients of cedar {'r/ii/i/a) wood, when water came into the moutli. The raven also ad- 
vised them when-, hy di<>-<;'ini,' in th(^ ^yround, tliey could i^et a little wat'r ; but .soon a 
preat rain I'anie on, very heavy ar.d vi'ry long, which lliled all the lakes and rivers so that 
they have n"ver been dry sinci'. Tin- water is still, however, in sonu' way understood 
to be .'oniu'cled with tln^ cedar, and the Indians say if tiiere were no cedar trees there 
would be no water. The converse would certainly hold ij-ood. 

It will be observed that two ori^'inal versions of the Hood story seems to have been 
combined in that above li'lven. the result beinu^ thai both mountains and eanoes appear 
as means of safety. 

One of the nn)st remarkable local stories which I have met with, is that attachini.y to 
a little stream which enters Forward Inlet, (iuatsino Souiul, a short dislance .south of the 
principal villaiiv of ihe K wi'-tsi-'io. This stream is n.uiied Tsoo-tsi-o-le, and an intellijjeut 
Indian told me that on its upper vyaters peculiar beings named A-tlis-im reside. Thoe 
people — for they resemble Indians — conn' sometimes down to the sea, to lish, and they 
have been seen at night crossing Ihe inlet in black cai-.oes. If followed to tin; shore, they 
lift their canoes ui) on their shoulders ami liasten away inland. Thus the Iiulians know 
that their canoes are not nnuh' of wood, but of .sonn- very light nnilerial. 

On enquiring i)articularly of t)w-Tt as to this, the following nn>re detailed and proba- 
bly more authentic version of the .story was obtained : — 

Very long ago, at a t'me when the people were celebrating their winter feast or 
"cannibal danci'," the possessed imlividual, or medicine man, was dancing on the end of a 
sort of prctjecting jetty formed of large split cedar planks, iixed together t'ud to end, and 
anchored out witii stoiu's and roi)cs. Something Iku iiiii- haiiix'iied to displease him very 
much, he tied one of Ihe stones about his neck, and |)lunginii' into the st'a, was drowned. 
Overconu' with distress or shame, his wile, taking her children witli lier, lied away into 
the woods near or up the little stream above referred to. The runaways mulli[)lieil there 
and were afterwards seiui by the Indians at various times. They had forgotten how to 
speak, but ( Dmmnnicated with each cllier by whistling. These [leople were said to be lint 
oriii'inal ancestors of the Kiaw-pino . .■ a part of them — a statement .somewhat at variaueo 
with that previously given as to the origin of this tribe. 

At another time, the Kvv.i'-tsT-i\o saw a msm in a canoe, on the sea, who, on being 
followed, lan(h'd, and folding up his camie, hurried away up tiie valley of the Tsoo-tsi-o-le. 
The Iiulians, however, determined to pursue him, ami did so till they reai^hed a lake of 
some size from which the river comes, the head of which is said to reach ni'arly to the 
present trail running from the Winter ILirbour Lagoon to Roprino Harbour. The man 
followed is supposed to have been a descendant of the fugitives prevnnisly mentioned, 
and was a sorcerer of great power. He drew his bow, and as his i)ursuers were coming 


along the path in siugK- lile killod all but one, with a single arrow, '''ho solitary indi- 
vidual who os(uiped related that the sorcerer, or medicine man, lived in a house built on 
piles, in the middle of the lake, which piles or posts, Ow-Tt averred, can still be seen. 

lu the same little bay at Cape Scott, in which the foot-print of Kan-r-a-ke-luh is 
shewn, there are a couple of granite boulders to which su!)erstition attaches. One of 
th'*se is said to represent a man, and is named Kuk-ush-nook, the second represents a 
woman. Its name I did not learn, and at the time of my visit it was buried up under 
drift-wood carried in by some storm and could not be . ni. The firs^ has two cup-like 
hollows, about a foot apart, and a strong iniaginatiou may indicate other parts of a face, 
these being the eyes. I was unable to determine whether these hollows are artilicial or 
accidental. The Indians place a liandful of gravel or sand in one or the other, according 
to the direction from whiih they wi^h th(! wind to blow. It is further related of the 
vicinity of Cape Scott that there was formerly a hole in the rock whence^ blood spurted 
up at times, which was considered very terrifying and supernatural. This was long ago 
closed by a plank of wood and buried up. 

The existence of bad or malignant streams has already bci'ii mentioned. Those con- 
sidered to be of this character are very numcrou.s, but no explanation of the cause of their 
evil reputation was obtained, except that some of them were said to be the resort of 
the double-headed serpent, subsequently mentioned. 

Of a large lake, not shewn on the charts, which exists behind Ai'tioon Sound (north 
part of (iueen Charlotte Sound), the Indians say that the water is inhabited by some 
strange beings, who, while they are asleep, untie their canoes and set them adrift. Wash- 
ing in the water of this lake is said not only to cure diseiist'd eyes, but also to remove 
wrinkles and signs of age. 

With regard to sneezing, it is held that, if the irritation causing this act arises on the 
right side, it is lucky, the reverse being unlucky. 

Tse-a-kTsh. a malignant creatuie, fabled to live under water and destroy canoe;-, has 
already been ujentioned in connection with the story of Kan-r-a-ke-iuh. The double- 
headed serpeut, sl-sl-uoU, evidently plays an important part in the myths of these people. 
It is represented as with a cylindrical body, terminating at each end in a serpent's head, 
and with the appearance of a human face in the middle. It is said to be often quite 
small, and at times to be found in the sea, but at will can increase to an immense size. 
To see this creature is most unlucky, and may even cause death. Kan-f-a-ke-luh's brother 
once saw it, and in consequence his head was twisted to one side. To possess a piece of 
the serpent, on the contrary, brings good luck and good fortune in fishing and hunting.. 

The belief in the " thunder-bird" being the most prevalent and unchanging myth of 
the west coast tribes, is naturally not wanting among the Kwakiool. Lightning is cau.sed 
by the twinkling of its eye, and thunder by the Happing of its wings. Mr. Ilall informs 
me that, under the name of KwunusTla, it is regarded as the special protector of the Nim'- 
kish. " It is said to have made its appearance when the first house was being built at 
the village on the river. A largi' stone in front of the village is named after it, ' the 
place whert KwunusTla alighted.' ' What are you doing,' he said. The chief of the 
Gigilkum was trying to raise the log which .supports the roof of all their houses. He saw 
they were unable to lift it, and said in answer to their ai)peal for help : 'This is why I 
have come from above.' He then seized the imme? ■>■ log with his claws and placed it 


on the two posts. Boforo ho left them, he said, ' You will always have a friend in ,„e to 
watrh over you ; when any of yon die, I shall weep with you.' This bird is represented 
as .-arrying a whale in its .laws. WhrJes' bones are .said to have been fonnd on the tops 
of the mountains, the remains of KwunusTla's repasts." 

In addition to reverence for, or fear of, such fabled beings as those above described, 
to superstitions attaehing to loealities, and the fear of sorcerers and sorceries, these people 
believe m the existence of an unknown being of great power, answering to the idea of a 
supreme God. This being is named Kl-T, and is respited, and petitioned in prayer 

The connexion of the eulture-hero, Kan-r-a-ke-luh, with the sun, has already 
appeared in the tales concerniiiaf hi.n, together with the b.-liof tiiat th.> cliiHs, or some of 
them, are related to Kan-r-a-ke-luli by des.^ent through his younger brother. Doubtless also 
m connection with this, we lind that the suu («-7-/.,[ under the name Kla-kun-a-e, or'" our 
chief," was formerly worshipped and prayiid to for good health and other blessiii-s In 
former times these people also addressed prayers to the mountains, under the name of 
Noo'-mas, or " the ancicits," for favourable winds. The high rocky island in the centre 
of Queen Charlotte Sound, named Nuraas Island on the chart, is particularly known to 
the Indians uiul.u- this aspe(3t as Noo'-mas, though it is also named Sa'-loot-sT. 

Such of the traditions and stories of the Kwakiool as I have ])een able to ascertain 
are given above literally and without ,],ange or embellishment, anu no attempt is made 
to account lor discrepancu- or to explain the origin of their myths and beliefs. 

VII.— Actual Condition of the Kwaictool Teople. 

The dilRculties att<>ndant on any effort toward the improvement of the condition and 
mode of life of the, tribes of British Columbia, are very grave ; and th.' a.'tual results 
of missionary labours, siK'h as those .'arried on by Mr. Hall among th.> Kwakiool, and 
other s.'lf-sa.rilicing persons elsewhere, are in most cases, to all appearance, small. 

It is dilhcult to induce individuals to abandon their old customs and bad habits, and 
nearly impossible to prevent them from relapsing from time to time, owing to the fact 
that they still live promi.scuoiisly among and herd together with the mass of the tribe. 
Since the arrival of th> whites, the Kwakiool, equally with other tribes, have became in a 
word "demoralised." They have lost, lo a ffreat extent, their pride and interest in the 
things whi.h formerly occupied th.>m, losing ;„t the same time their spirit and self-respect, 
and r.'placiug it by nothing. It is comi>aratively easy at all times io obtain a sulli.'iency 
of food, and food is at some seasons— as during the salmon run— to b(> had in the greatest 
abundance with very little eilort. Beyond this, there is nothing more to occup'y their 
time fully and to k.'cp thein out of mischief. They are restless and unhappy. In some 
seasons, good wages are to be obtained by picking hops in the vicinity of Pu-vt Sound, and 
it has thus became customary for many of the tribes to go south in thi' auiuinn, nominally 
ibr this purpose, but in reality with no great prospect of obtaining work. They may theu 
be seen leaving their villages in bodies in their large and well-built travelling canoos, 
whole families together with their houseliold elf'.-cts and children, and thre.', four or live 
paddlers to each canoe, setting out cheerfully enough on their xoyasj-e of two hundred 
miles or more. They may obtain a little money while away, which they invest in goods 



and whiskey if they can obtain it (and in this there is unfortunately very litth; diiruulty). 
They live, however, in the viiiuity of Victoria and other larfje towns in a state of shame- 
less debauoliery, and thus very cften return in a diseased state to their homes. 

The condition of these people is in no stnise bettered by endeavouriniy to tea(;h them 
moral maxims or religioiis dogma. They do not appreciate the truth of the former, nor 
can they in their low mental state rightly under.stand the latter. To endeavour to do so 
is merely to imitate the procedure of the Indian shaman over the dying. If, on the con- 
trary, you speak to them of means of improving their material condition, or deplore with 
them the rapid diminution of their tribe, the more thoughtful and mature listen with the 
greatest respect and attention. The pro])leni is, fundamentally, an industrial one, and is 
to be attacked, if successfully, from that side. They are naturally industrious enough, 
and capable, though not so persistently laborioias as the whites, and less easy to control 
than the Chinese. They obtain a certain amount of precarious employment in connection 
with the canneries and other nascent industries of the northern coast, but have not gen- 
erally the offer of any permanent remunerative work. 

It is thus primarily essential to establish industries among th'.im which will remove 
the temptation now felt to drift to the larger settlements and towns. Improvement in 
mental and moral tone will then naturally follow. The Kwakiool, with other Indians 
of the coast, already cultivate in a di'sultory manner small crops of potatoes, on .such 
minute patches of open land (generally the sites of old villages) as are to be found along the 
shore. Their bent is, however, not that of an agricultural people, and the densely wooded 
character of their country calls for laboixr, herculean in proportion to the unsystematic 
etibrts of these people, before it can be cleared and reclaimed for agriculture on any large 
scale. They are, on the contrary, excellent boatmen and lishermen in their own way, and 
it is towards developing, encouraging and directing their tendency in this direction that 
efforts should be made. Th(>y would readily learn to build boats, make nets, and to take 
and cure fish in such a mann(>r that the product would be marketal)le, and in so doing 
might attain independence and what would be to them wealth. They might not, it is 
true, be able to compete on equal terms with the wliites in such matters, but this need 
not prevent them from developing into very valuable members of the community of the 
west, the scattered constituents of which are already uatherinsr from all quarters of the 
world and being welded into a new whole. To elfect these objects, the most essential 
step is the establishment of industrial schools, of which there are already good examples 
in several parts of the country, where the younger people will be separated from their 
old associates and instructed in various callings appropriate to their condition and 



Op about Seven TIdndbed Words op the Kwakiool LANairAOE. 

[From Ya-a-Mle-a-Mlof (Tom) of the Kom-o-ymvr, a mh,lmnon or s>pt of tfw Km'-ki-ool mKwiV-hUl tribe, now 
vihnhitimj th,: riciniln of Fort Rupnt, Iltavtr Ifarhour, Vatwoimr Uaml.) 

The Hul,j(,iric<l vocabulary is l,i>so(l on llio sclieduloH ofwo-ds given by Major J. W. Powell in his 
" Inlroduotion to the Study ut Indian Lan-uagcs." Having b^o.. obtained from an educated Indian, 
with Ibc additional asBistanceofa good interpreter, it in mucn more complete than those given for 
several tribcH of the Kwaki.xd people by Dr. T., an.l the writer, in the "Comparative Vocabu- 
laries of the Indian tribes of 15jiti.h Cohmdjia." The rendering of many of the words ditfers from that 
of those in the nearest corresponding list in the " Comparative Vocabularies," but is believed in most, if 
not in all eases, to bo here more exact. The difficulties in the way of obtaining a strictly a'jcurato 
vocabulary of a language of which the grammatical construction is not fully known, are obvious, and 
those having, alieady been touched on in the introduction to the '•Comparative Vocabularies," need 
not hero again be referred to in detail. It will also be observed, in many cases, that what are 
evidently the same root-words appearing in various combinations, are not always represented by 
identical letters. No attempt is made to unify these, as this would imply the introduction of hypo- 
thesis and the alteration of the words as written down at the time with all the care possible. Striking 
instances of this occur among the numerals. The alphabet employed is identical with that of the 
" Comparative Vocabularit^s," and is as follows : 


(I as in English fo^, 

" fatlier. 

* met. 

^ they. 

i tt U 

* pm. 

S It tt 

' manne. 

° pot. 

" go, show. 

« " " nut,but. 

» year. 

«< " " auk. 

" " " mn. 

"o " " pooljool. 

eu " Fronrh ;)fU (soldom used). 

ow " English „ou,. 

The distinction of long and short vowels (following Gibbs) is noted as far as possible, by the divi- 
sion into syllables— the consonant that Hd lows a vowel being Joined immediately to one intended to 
be pronounced short, whereas a long vowel is left open, being followed by a hy])hon. Where this is 
insufficient, or a nicer distinction is desirable, the usual long and short marks are supplied. 

iOxplosivo or klicking sounds are represented by the letters k, f, etc., in combination ii an 
apostrophe, thus — '/; 't. 

An acute accent (') at the end of a syllable indicates its accentuated character, when this is very 

distinct. In some cases certain syllables are run very hurriedly over and almost whispered, and 

• though really forming a part of the word, might easily be omitted by a careless listener. Where 

this has been noted it is indicated by the use of smaller type. Strongly guttural syllables are printed 

in small capitals, thus — latc-KH. 



(1) Pehsons. 

Man \ P'lo-hcii'-nitm or 

( I'l'ij-kirH-iiuiii. 

'^^'"■""'' mtah:. 

Oki man J n»>'-inas or hmil'. 

( yukoo. 

0\<X\yomAu tUkwa'-nc. 

Yoiiiii,' man hiihia'. 

Yoiiny woman all^os'-Uiiv-kus. 

"^''^''" ke'-l-d'-la. 

^^"y pa-pn-fcoom'. 

^^''■' isa tui-lii'-him. 

I"^'"'t /<ina.„„m. 

Infant Just lioin wc-yok' o-mal. 

^*"'" '"I""' (noHpccialnamo.) 

...(no Hpccial nanio.) 

.. yl-kwltV. 

...(no Njieeinl name.) 

Fomalo infant 


Maniod man 

Jfai rioil wom.'in 

^^'"'"wor pukWs. 

'^^'"'•w ktikm. 

BiKholor (old) („., ,j,^,,i„| ,„,„,^ > 

Maul (did) « 1, „ 

^^''' l'«'"i'l" no'-nc-mas. 

Young ])coplo Ci-tloos-taw. 

<^''<^=" '••'l'<^''' kiuw-fola. 

S''"'" I'orNoii u-moo'k. 

™«1' /^/^o..^/,.•^. 

(2) Parts of the I!oi)V. 

I''**"'' hioo'-mis. 

Hair sc'-i-d. 

Crown of (ho iiead Oh-tlc-e. 

Sf"'" kun-uh-klc-e. 



^^viihmd „. o-hvuca-e. 

^^y^ kayok-m. 

Pupil of tlio cyo tsa-atso-pi-nk. 

%e!ash h,Vpc-lih. 

%«brow ,j'.„„ 

Upper oyolid o'-c-*f.a//-^a!m 

Lower eyelid pwi-kw-tax-fawe. 

' pus'-ptiio. 

Perforation in the car kica-wutawe. 

^"''o hem-sMs. 

Ri'lgo of nose ko-ko-ya'-yilh-pae. 

'^'"'^'■^^ ai-iai-kai-nis-p'i-o. 

Si'litum of noso awa-koh-sie-c. 

Pi'rforation of Hoptuni of 

^ ""«" kwa-wil-pai. 

"''*''^ a-oom-yn-e. 

^^^'"'■'' ha'-puh-sta-e. 

Moutli s,-„is. 

Ul'l>«'- I'j) m-kio-tuh-sta-e. 

^^»'''°'' "P pm-kio-tuh-sta-e. 

Tooth ^.;/,; 

"!'""«>'" kil-/i,n. 

S'll'va /,7«\s^/7.w. 



T*"'"»t /)rf6-'-</-/ia-«v,-e-. 

•^'■"n o-flas'-ke-e. 

Noc'c '>-/i<r-«v?-e. 

Adam's applo kC -ka-icha-,vahi 

"'"'3- <;'-te(«-a-e. 

^'"'"'''«'' ok'-sMja-pa-e. 

Shoulder-blade /xJ/of-se. 

^'■■"^■'<: a-wl'-ke-e. 

^^'•<^a»t <V»<lK'-e. 

T t • ' 

"'I' o-noo-tsve. 

''^'"y ta.'ke'. 

^^^'^^ kut-a-lo-hcut-se-e. 

■''^''"^ e-yxis-^o, 

^^'S''^ '"•'" hel'-kintse-ya-pai-e. 

Y^^ "'■'" 'hum-hoxdltseya-paii 

"^'•"M'i'^< ^«»-/,ym-te. 

^''|'>"w tla-kwan-e. 

^^ '■'■"* o-tlah'-tsana-e. 


Palm (if hand... 
Bat'lc of hand.... 



f (no spot'ial name 
■ j i's distinguished 
( fiom arm.) 


• ••■o-tsoh'-tsCin-a-e. 

■ •■■ouiki-alsnn-a-e. 

• ■■■kwri-kwa-tsan-a-e. 
■ ko'-ma. 


First fingor tsl 

" the imiiiter." 

Second rtngor nO'-to, •■ i,m^.,-." 

"T'''''' ''"K^^"' /.-fi'^^rt, "M,„rk.r." 

'^"'"" ''"K^'l- S(7-^rt', ".Imrlfst." 

Fingernail tmm-lsnm. 

^^'""fl<'« o/i-z/e-fi. 

Sjiat'c hot ween knucklos <Mmh-ko'-tsan-a-e. 

^^""'1' a-woh-kr,h'-tla-e. 

I^*-'K klo-kirai-6. 

Leg above knee c--(,.m„. „ul./aii-{. 

^^""" o-kwe-ha-V. 

Log below knee („„ Hcpaiale name.) 

Calf of the log a-u:a'pit-sa-e. 



•""'*lo (no separate nnmo.) 

Anklo liono kaatl'-ko'kw. 

Ii'Stop ou-i'-klats-sa-isae. 

i (ni) sjH'cial 11,11110 
1'""'' ■< aH (lisliii^niisliod 

( from ley.) 

Solo of foot pulka'-sit-sa-e. 

"•^"' oh-tlah'-s',tsa-e. 

T<""< lavaktidhniUm-e. 

Largo too ko-ma sit-sae. 

Second too tsim-alak-sit-m-e. 

Tliinl too 7io-l(t/;sit sae. 

Too nail tsinn-tsum-sit'-sa-e. 

Blood iil-kwa. 

Vein or artory na-sa-e. 

l^''"'" tluk-wa'. 

Bl'iililoi- U'-hat-ae. 

'""" fuh-mas. 

J''''"'"' milk o-paw'-e. 

Li'ii!,' A-«u.|(/tr(. 

Livor teirana. 

Stomach po-whuns. 

Ji''> kalutit. 

'^P'"" humoom-oi-kUl-e. 

'''""^"••"' ti-tn-moot'. 

f^l^'i" tli'siin-a-e. 

1^""« Aa-'A-A. 

TntoBtinos ya-hl-kll'. 

(3) Dkess ANT) Obnaments. 

C'lp kla-tuwlh'. 

MoccaHins i'el-i>oli-tsi-tsa-f', 

(nut iisoii by coast tribes.) 

Cedar-liark litit tin-sum. 

Short petticoat tsSa-'ph. 

Girdlo tseii/i-tums-a. 

Garters ketsuk-tmisa-e, 

worn by wuiucn ruund 

Cedar-bark hlankot kio'-jia-os. 

Robe of mink wkin. mat-suskum. 

Sinew thread a-tum. 

Necklace kun-ha-wae. 

Cedar-bark neck- cloak wah-saw. 

BracolotH yikwoikila. 

l'*""''i thi-patin-ootsa-e. 

Hod worn in soptum of nose. . O'-tai-in. 

J^i'i-i'ingH tein'-tuk-wa. 

Nonc-riiifTH wa-Ul-pa-i. 

Paint (blacK) (sotl'-na. 

Paint (rod) kakom'-ifm. 

Barehcad lool-mm-a. 

Barefoot lool-Wi-sila. 

Naked hd'-nala. 


Village k-inkwila. 

IloiiKO fciok. 

Doorway tCi-hila. 

Smoko-holo kwanatze. 

Fire-place luk-wilus'. 

VUv kind'-ta. 

P'iro-wood luk-ua. 

Blaze ano-pe-hula. 

A light kivakulla. 

Dead coals tsuU-na. 

AnIioh kinm-ae. 

Smoke kinl'-hila. 

Soot icua' Hoops. 

I'oker khuika-klata'. 

A seat kinihUi-milh'. 

The plai'o where seals tivii...kHat-seliis. 

Upright post of honso flu'-mi. 

Main rafter of house kiatte-wahe. 

Mat kle-ua-e. 

Bed ke-e-lvs. 

Floor jHi'-eilh'. 

''filing ^e'-la. 

Wail fsa'-kum. 

Lintel ka-i-kial-taw-i'. 

Opening for window lui-kwatse. 

Carved post (oui^iile house). ^/rt-«s. 
Carved ])ost (inside ho[iro) 

Stairway ta-heil-Un'. 

A stone tal-sum. 

Paint mortar kia-tatse'. 

Spiing ua-tva-kula. 

Water wdp. 



(5) Imi'I,ement8 and Utensils, 

Bow, of wood fl'i-kwis'. 

Bow string Ili-hn-tsim. 

Arrow a-nut lum. 

Notch ill arrow tor uU-iug.. .kul'-pus. 

Arrow-lioad of Htoiio Ti.uiiy/(J-c. 

Arrow t'eatliers tmlkiuh-sie-e. 

(Quiver <i-natliim Cttze. 

War-club (stoiio) klah-stii-la. 

FiBh-ilub tul'-wa-kan. 

War-cpear mas-to'. 

Sling yin'-ka-yo. 

Cnnoo (general torin) ichd'-kwunmt. 

Canoe (largo) k\ ith'-um. 

Canoe (medium) ivhi-tooku'h. 

Canoe (umall) whawho-koom. 

Fish-lino tu'kuila-no-i. 

Fish-lino, of kelp sa-na-jiatl. 

Fish-net ki'-ttum. 

Oolachan net ta-kdtl. 

Dipping net how-tai-o. 

Halibut hook yi-kio. 

Fdod hi-ma-omis. 

Meat ul'-tsi. 

Milk tsil-me. 

Juice saa'k. 

Da-ied salmon ha'-mas. 

Dried herring-cgg3 i-imt'. 

Dried meat lumo-ul'-tai. 


Pipo Ht(>m of wood 



(i roaHc-liowl 

Fired I'ill 

Kelp oil-lii>tllo 



Hand-adze for slia,)ing canoe 






Stone hand-hammer 

Horn ladle 

Basket (for food) 

Wooden wator-box or bucket 

K'd hat se. 





un-U 'k. 





(("liiniiok jsruonforiron?) 








(C) Foot). 

Dried halibut kia'-tvas. 

Oolachan grease. 'kll'-ina. 

Dried bei-ries 'ta-uk-d'. 

Dried clams kioo'-matse. 

Cambium layer of hemlock. . /uk-kh. 
Dried bca-wecd hlukus-iun'. 

Black tsoo-tla. 

Blue tsa'-sa. 

Brown kleCiha. 

Green klin-huh. 


Eed tla'-kwa. 

White mela. 

Yellow klinhuh. 

(8) Nuiu;ral8. 

One num.. 

Two mail. 

Three in-tooh. 

Four n'"- 

Five slk'-i-a. 

Six ka-tld. 

Seven atle-poo'. 

Eight matl-kwin-dti . 

Nine nd-nema. 

Ten lestoo'. 

Eleven num-a-gloo. 

Twelve matl-e-gloo. 

Thirteen in-tooh-nha-gloo. 

Fourteen ino-a-ifwo. 

Fifteen slk-l-a-tjioo. 

Sixteen kdtla-gioo. 

Seventeen atle-poo' -gioo. 

Eighteen matl-kwin-dtl-gJoo, 

Nineteen na-ne-mdgwo. 

Twenty mat-sum (jioostow. 

Twenty-one nu' -num-a-kaw-la. 

Twonty-two a-matl-aw-la. 



Twonty-thrco in-te.-heawAa. 

Twenty-four c- nv' ukaw-la. 

Twonty-tivo slk'ta kawla. 

Twenty-Hix. katlaliair-h. 

Twoiitynovon att-po k<iir In. [la. 

Twonty-oight a-mittlkirinalt-heaw- 

Twcnty-nino luiiutiu'i kaw hi. 

Thirty. '"■ tonhsimijioo-staw. 

|.",ipty mn skum-i/ioo Sti'W. 

VH'iy , sUci<t-sium-(jioo-staw 

yixty k<i-tlas-kum-(jioo-&taw 

Sovcniy atl-pookum-yioo-staw 

,, , f mntl-kwin-atlswn- 

liighty \ ,jioostaw. 

Ninety na-twm-soo-kwa. 

Olio liundrotl la'-kin-te. 

One hunilicd and one la' kinte-hirne-sa-mm 

One thousand loh'-sim-yH. 

One hull' (in len^'th) ai>-siiul>. 

One imlf(in quunlity,liquidw)ni//.-('-i/ai/);a. 
One half (in quantity, Ho\'n\H)nuk-sn(lkh. 

All nd whd. 

None ...• kWtWH. 

(9) Division of Time. 

A year num-<ih-unh, 

"nno yofir." 

A moon nnm-skiim, 

"one moon." 

A ludf moon niiksHe. 

Fii-Ht quarter of moon hwut-tm-oo. 

Lnst quarter of moon hi-nn-kinda. 

Day na-la. 

Niffht ku'-nootl. 

A day (24 liourH) (no name.) 

J)u\vn nuna kirula. 

Sunrise tle-tsina-licula. 

Morninj,' ka-Oi-a. 

Mid-forenoon kaal'-a-pni. 

Noon nuk-kf-U'i. 

Aftemoon kiva-pmt. 

Sunset len'-sa. 

Dusk tsd-kwun-a-kula. 

Evening tsa-oos-too-wit. 

Midnight nnkai'-ki-e. 

Bay hoforo yesterday he-lookswt I. 

Yesterday hlen-nirll. 

Today wha-na-luh. 

To-morrow Idin-stla. 

Day after to-morrow hi'-looh-sa. 

Now hoh-ti. 

Oclobor wul-et'-sun-iih, 

" nut yet lime for»iiluiiin.' 

November k\-okxva4'ld-an-uh, 

" salmon ofttohinn time." 

(10) Standards of Valije. 

Dontnlium shells uti-il-a ora-tl-a. 

Blanket (2i point) nr-hul-askiim. 

Copjior (largo valuable kind)f;a-^-!ra. 
Co})per (small inferior k\ud)tla-tlohsum. 

(11) Animals. 

Bat ba'-kwulow-e 

Beaver tsu-ive 

(or (»""• ill Kos'-l<i-mo.) 

Bear (grizzly) 'jU-'''- 

Bear (black) AYu-f'. 

Dog u-dt'-se. 

Deer (general name) kai'-was. 

Fawn tu-iie-wa. 

Deer (half grown) kd'-kirniO, 

(from "forehead" rcrcrnnK 
to iirnminouco of this iiart) 

Deer (buck) uut-look, 

(Biiileil to name = " horned 

Elk lid'-icols. 

Ermine ki-kil-um'. 

Fox d-isai. 

Goat (mountain) mul'-uh-klo. 

Lion (mountain) .put-e. 

Mink mtit-sa. kl-k't-a-tsuk. 

Mole or shrew kiap -kepu-s. 

Marten kluk-uh-ho. 

Otter hoom'-U. 

Otter (sea) 'kds-uh. 

Porcupine nu-lvte. 

Torpoiso kwo-looti. 

Rabbit us-du-d. 

Racoon wai'-oos. 

Seal vu-cjwut. 

Seal (fur) \\\-mih. 

Skunk ydh-pa-la, 

(not found in Ewa- 
kiool country.) 

Squirrel ti-menas. 

Wolf a-tla-num'. 



Wliiilo (InrKo) kuCi-ylm. 

Wlmlo (Htiiull.T) jtH'-hlna. 

WImlo (killer) vuik-mooh. 

WolvcTim. naihii. 

Sou lion. klc-ah-un. 

Antlm-H iiiul horim icuM.aii. 

jjlj^^y tsiim'-tiiiim. 

Hoof!'.'.! Uoh-lM. 

lliilo (with liiiii- or \voo\). ...Ii<1-i>is (I na-e. 
llido (wiilioiit liJiir. li'Ullior)/.»'.t^ m". 
rp.jjl a-jioh-Mee. 

j^\y,\ pe-pa-tloov\is. 

j^jjye,, kivii-w'i-nuh. 

O.rinoriint (lnr;;i>) lahiiihw'. 

Connorant (smiill) klr/-l,a-nuh. 

(j,.Q^y Miii'-ii-la-ka. 

Dipper or water-ouzel kU-uirhut-sa. 

Duck pe-i.a-lloomis. 

Duck (milliard) kl<it-k>uo. 

Duck (Vm-"'i') u''-tsin. 

Duck (hiuleiiuin) mtUshnuh. 

Duck (bulHe-lii'iul miilo) tlan-tle. 

Duck (ImHU'licad iom>\\ii)'-pf. 

Duck (nifrpiiiser iniiK;. ...kO-kos. 

Duck (morgiinsor icmu\o). ..tliiiii'-hti-o, 

"iliriy forehead." 

Duck (toalj tla-tlanc 

Eiifllo (white hoadod) k)n-kw. 

Goose (wavy) ■'••• kle-stuli. 

Goose (small kind) nllrt. 

Goose (hrant) n.m-rt-hrikiim. 

Goose (Canada) nnlm-'kh. 

Grctjo (small) kowtak-nh . 

Grebe (largo) ha-masi-l/'-lis. (dusky) huinhO-mil. 

Grouse (rulVod) kookoo'-iiusfi. 

Gull isclnre. 

jjj(„.l{ mil vnl-nuli. 







(12) Bmna. 

|ii,.,| kira-dkoniii-te. 




Q^yl .. tiih-luhhiUtl. 

Owl (small) puk-inV-i. 

Owl (White) khl'-sa-kn. 

Oyster-catcher kwhkirUkwh 

Pigeon '^'■"""'• 

Plover kCftll'-sll-a. 

('„,,l^,\y kira'kiit'ikoum. tsO'-pu-U. 

Sandpipor ts,i^-ho-ice-<hkoh. 

Snii.e Isa-hal-kio. 

Sparrow tsus-kwanuh. 

Swan kakO-'kh. 

Swallow ma-mat li'-kia'. 

Woodpecker (red shaltcd),../.v(W-/»//''. 

Woodpecker (redhead) ila-Hnn-a Hi. 

Widgeon irlw-iM-la. 

Yy'|.^,„ iclidtd 

Feathers UiU'tsut-ke. 

Wings pulLum. 

fp.jjl ndh'-sti'-c. 

j-Vg tse'-kicunoo. 

Yolk of egg klok'so. 

Bird's nest kur-ha-tse. 

ijy j^y intt-la-nd-kifuld. 

(1:5) Fish, etc. 

j/^ fi^l, ina'-ma-i'-mts. 

Oral) 'k'Mv'-mis. ' 

Dog-tish u-hul'-a-koom. 

Halibut pdiv'-f. 

Mussel (large) ""'-'''• 

Mussel (small) ^'-s'- 

g},aplj ,rhid-a-koom-dk'-sa. 

Trout /''''-''^■ 

Salmon (silver) (sd-iiun. ^ 

Salmon (dog-tooth) kwd-ha-nis'. 

Salmon ((juinnat) imt-bk. 

Salmon (summer) hd-no-na. 

Oolachan tsd-whun. 





Herring u-d'-nae. 

Cod (black) tldh'-sta-la. 

Cod (rc.l) kloh'-sum. 

Clam (largo) mut-d'-nc-'\ 

Clam (medium) kiawe-kd'-nim. 

Clam (small) kul-kulamuh' . 

Cockle 'S''-'«- 

Chiton (black) />'''-n'S. 

Chiton (large rod) kin-oof. 

^i\\]f^ koic'-sin-a-e. 

Breu8t-fin .pd'-spiU or p 




I?Mfk (ill 
Tail-tin .. 
Sculos ... 


To hwim 

Spiho on lishoH bade 




Fro- .. 



Simko sUhm. 

Sniiieo (water) hUoioe. 

(15) Insects, etc. 

Ant hiat'-sd-liii-se. 

Uo„ hum'-tsa-lut-se. 

Buttcifiy (a lac^o Hiiccios) ..htim'-nmii-oo. 
Buttorlly (small yvWow) ....t''''-U-nooh. 

Caterpillar yr'-a-kiraf. 

DraKon-tly mri'-ma-'hwfi. 

Flea tr/-pni-ut-se. 

Ply hiV-ha-te-na, 

Ilorsc-tly S'T-te.-lanl. 

LiiuNo /.aZ-in'. 

MngKot r,.pa-ne. 

.\Ios<jult() tii'-stlum, 

(iilsi) bliick-llios iinil aiind- 

Ichnoumon kul-luii'-tnn-uh. 

Spider ya-kit-tin' -ekuh. 

Fly-l.l.)W whi'i-sa-e. 

Snail (heli.x) hi-lowe. 

gllljr kwn-ii-tSll'k. 

(10) Plants. 

Biul oftroo ku-'V-sa-ma. 

Jj^.j^f in'~i '■Vli-muh. 

Limb tlln-i-'k. 

Jlny\i II A kocm. 

Bark (cedar) tin-r,s'-s. 

Stump '»«/'•-' '-""'^''• 

]?oot tlo-pke. 

rp,.m, th'i'-US. 

Tree (fallen, witb root) h','puk-umola. 

Wood hik-ira. 

jjpuvii, tse'-tsuso, 

Poj.pst tl'-'-n-i&'-kwula. 

Berry (sal-lal) mik-watl. 

Berry (erab-applo) tsul'-uh. 

Borry (salmou) /••"'" '-tsu-hw. 

Borry (arctostaphylos) hwn'-atim. 

Grass kV-itum. 

Ripe '''■-F'f- 

Unripe k^s-flr,.pa. 

Cedar tree ...kwah-tl<'t'-oo. 

Cedar tree (large enough tor 

canoo) wiV-hco. 

Yellow cypress ti''-ivh. 

Aldor klfiic'-harnis. 

Ciabapplo tsul'-a-ivhom-ii. 

:^[;^|.lo kloo'-tlai. 

Douglas tir Howu' 

Hemlock ulr'-tms. 

Yow tlum'-n'.-i''. 

Scrulvpino k.r-k dwamis. 

Basi)borry mat-tsoo-mis'. 

Ktlj. icr,'.ira-te. 

Bladder-weed (on shovo).... tin, '-t I ulc-'ku: 

(17) (iEoaRAPiiicAi, Terms. 

South-oast md'-tse. 

North-west jtv-m-kw. 

Out to sea tn-siikw. 

North-west wind tsa'-kw. 

South-oast wind. , ,Uflt-las. 

Soulli-west wind (Ins'-pa-la. 

West wind keaks'-ala. 

Kast wind 


North-oast wind yoo'-yala. 



(l8) TllR FiRMAMKNT, «T0, 

A clouil un'a-iMf. 

lloiizon k'la-tlilii. 

Sun ri'i-h. 

Moon mukirila. 

Full moon m'Lum. 

Stars t''i-tan\ 

Riiiiihow wi'i-kaloos. 

Fog ul'-hutit. 

iroiirfroMt ki-w'i-S''it-sum-ia, 

{nUii MOW iipiilictl tn upHoiii 

Snow «''-^' 

Hail ts'i'-kita-kul. 

Ico 'klili. 

Icicle ts'i'-iim-'Ice. 

Water ir'''l>- 

Koain I'l-i'i'-wi. 

Wave kul-ihe. 

Curiont ts<'i'-lfi. 

Eddy ..kiit-''''-suh. 

Tide (rising) iu' -na-kwila. 

Tilo (fallliif,') hi-rits'a-hula. 

Tide (liiKJi) ijiiU-inil-iiUs'. 

Tide (low) h'l-dts-'-is'. 

Rain iu' kira. 

Tliiindor kirln'-wha. 

Lightning 'tlin-f'-nkwa. 

Wind i-nw'-la. 

WhiiI'vind hyilo-jx'n-kwUa. 

Tiio groumi a-w'i-nn-kwia'. 

Dust ti'i'-kia. 

Mud tatik-wiT, 

Sand id'kis. 

Salt lumiski', 

(uniiio with Halt water.) 

Hock tt'i'-sum. 

CliU'alon^ sliofe ha-yim'-is-ta'. 

K(;lij)NO of sun nuk-uhkii-^ 

l''aith(|iiako n'l-n'i-ne. 

Showof kwa-sild. 

Stoini ts't'-kwa-kula. 

(in) Kinship. 

My son ivhun'-ookw. 

My fatlior hun-'''mp. 

My sonV son..... \ (so'-la-ma. 

My son s dau^liter ) 

My mother hun-opump. 

My father's father I'm-paiin-Omp' 

My wifo hun'-ka-niim. 

My Imsband hnn'-tla-wuna, 

Male orphan hi' -ma-la . 

Fomalo orphan hd'-ma-la-kus. 

Family kai-a-'kap. 

„ /.^ -i f A'"m-o-)/flM:c ii sept 

Name of tribe j ofthe Kwakiool 

Indian pii-'korm. 

W^hito man mi',matl-a. 

Negro tsoo-tluvi. 

Half-breed nuh-saw'-e. 

Indians to the north kw'i-tula. 

West coast tribes and those 

to the south kw'i-kiea-tula. 

Indians of Comox k'l-mook-c. 

Inland tribes interior of 
British Columbia 

(20) SociAi, Organisation, etc. 



" otir cliicf." 

Yoiini; man becoming a Chief kia'-kl-ako. 

Leading man ow'-l-la. 

Man of knowledge nuw'-ka-te. 

Friend ni-viokw. 

Warrior fiow'-tlawai-nooh. 

Enemy hof-kis, 

A coward k'l-kdpis- 

Battle Iw'-a-tloo. 

War-whoop ici-kia-hints. 

(21) Rehqion, Mortuart Customs, Medicine. 

(iod k)-l. 

The ancients, fabulous belngs^^A-<s^s. 

The future woild atlakowa. 

The sun (as worshipped) kl-akun-ii-e, 

" our cliiof." 

Dead body 'tla-le or o'-tsi-hit. 

Soul or spirit puh-whun-d-e. 

Grave, in the ground tik-'i-as'. 

(irave, in tree tuh-pf' -kh. 

Coffin-box tik-l-i'i'-tse. 

Health • d-aik'-ik-sal. 



SicknoHH tsuh-k'i'lum. 

Fain Ixi-hil'L 

Vortif^o ....kiat-til'n-hula. 

1 1 cm liK'lm t.vih-tsilw'-luh. 

Tdtdliacliii k'l-katUu 

Coii^li luhiiw, 

Snuill-pox k'ikin-ii'-e. 

Uoil taummi-e. 

Cut, with u kiiiCo puh tsa'nae. 

('ill, with nn nxo soopais, 

Keur kwui-(l. 

BruiHO ti'i'wha. 

Spiintor in tlio foot ... kin-uk-S'a'. 

Sick iitBloinuch taik-sum-sila' . 

Soa-Hi('l<noHN k'l-um'p. 

Hick man k\d' -wha-tla, 

Lnnie rnun k'loha'ia. 

Blind nnm pnpflu'. 

I)cat' man kwul'-ilkoom, 


Sweat 0)11 llio (aco).. kowilaatna-e. 

SwcMit (general) tmil-kwa. 

Illood ui,'-nkw. 

Modicino put-i'i-e. [altir. 

A mcdiiinc man puh-ui-a or nn'-wul- 

Medicine Hong kum'-tum. 

Hweal iioufto k'la-tUla. 

A droam !'-apula. 

(22) Amuskments. 

Doll kia'-kinatliim. 

Battlo y'Ki-tin. 

Swing a-tca-haioo. 

Song kum'-tum. 

Banco i/iuli-wha. 

Mask ynh-oomilh. 

Ganiiding sticks W-pa-iu. 

(Janil)liiig with HtiekH li'-pr. 

(23) New Words. 

Hoi'MO Moo-tan, 

(from Chinook jantoii.) 

Bull, COW, etc nwosvwos-ti. 

(fnim CliiniKik jiireoii.) 

Shocp la-mata. 

Hog koo-shoo, 

(from Cliinmik jargiin.) 

Cat poo'-se, 

(from Cl.inuuk jarKOn ) 

Cock, lien ka'-ka-o. 

GooHo tle-sta. 

Axe soo'-paioo. 

Auger u'un-aioo. 

Awls of motal s'd'-um. 

Beads kla-ijiiia. 

Broom h'i'-kwa-yoo. 

Cloth ya-tra-pit-Sdo. 

Comb iiUK-KHi. 

Knife (pocket) kios-kiosa. 

Fork h('i-maioo. 

IIoo hul-paioo. 

Hammer lik-l-aioo. 

Kiittle hun'-uh-klawooh. 

Tin plate oik-ik-Ui, 

Scissors klup-aioo. 

Table hiin-ta-mltl. 

Pistol ap-soot-tik-uk-hc. 

Gun ,.hun-tlum. 

Bitli) tuii'-kiuo. 

Ramrod tlim-kwaioo. 

Cannon /lai-mun-us. 

Ballot tlg'i'la, 

" thing to kill." 

(run-flint k'ip'd-pa-i'. 

Powder tS'/diioo. 

Brass hlinhd. 

Iron tsili-in', 

" strong." 

Silver ti'i'-luh, 

(from " dollar ") 

Cap or hat tl-tum'-tl. 

Noc[;tic h'l'-h'i-ujh'i u-ai. 

Coat td'-tuts-a-wak-uh. 

Vest iihm-ya'-e. 

Shirt kusun-a'-e. 

Trousers wuti-kai'-sta. 

Shoes ti'-paioo. 

Boots hfti-yim'-<jwo-staw, 

'• come up on the legs." 

Stockings tsiV tsi-tsil-laktsi-tsae 

" stretch on tlio feet." 

Ribbons tsu-wul'-tau-wnkw. 

Shawl lowk'-sum. 

Handkerchief (white) milh'-sa. 

Dress (gown) koom'-tsoicioo. 

Bread kwa-kook-sum. 

Flour kwnu. 

Match (friction) k'l-tsaioo, 

" to rub." 

Sugar e'-<j'i-sila. 

Soap tso-kivaio. 



Tobacco tl'i'-hve. 

Wliiskcy nun-h-tu -ma. 

Finger ring hai' a-kut-ut-ldae. 

Minor un'hatse. 

Picture k'lu'-tum-a'k. 

JIoiiso h'lok. 

Koof Si'-la. 

Window n(('-/i-«?o,".se. 

lOtlitT imrti< of tilt' lioiisr Iiiivl' i^iiniljirly tlio 
sane names as those Kivcii to nativf liniiscfi.) 

School-iiouso h-'m-hd -tuhsi-hd-se. 

'* book-house.'' 

Church tm-ma-tse. 

" prayer-hnusc." 

l?iii'n /i'l'-tut-se, 


Pencil or pen kia' taioe. 

Paper kiiilakoli. 

New.spapor islln-al'-um-tsawluh. 

llotid or trail tii'hi-la. 

Waggon tsi'-hik. 

Biiiigo pi'i'-wi-hlila. 

Well Iil'in'tkli, 

" (lut? out." 

Steam I loat IvnlM-ya-Ui, 

" lire on toj)." 

Kiiilway ... h'l-aka-ya-lil-silii, 

" steauihoat on lanil.*' 

iiitoi'|)rolor lu-luli -stae. 

Biacl<smitii li-k'i-nooh. 

Tiinlcr kak'il-a-wil-a-Ui-la, 

" keeTiinu a place fur trailc." 

(24) Adjectives, 

Large wd'-lis. 

Small um-d'-e. 

St rong iU'i'-kw'(-mas. 

Old noo'-mas. 

Young I'l '-tloos-io. 

Good a'i'k. 

Bad yak' -sum . 

Dead Ida'-la. 

Alive kwubl. 

Cold tnit-rda'. 

Warm, hot tsul'kwd. 

Afraid hit'-lUa. 

Far kirt'-sa'-la. 

Near idh-irhri'-la. 

I i/'«- 

Mc noo'-kw(i-um. 

Thou yo<i-tl, 

IIo i/u'k. 

We yinooh. 

Ye iiihta-irhootl. 

Thoj- yihi.i-whd'-tn. 

'\'h\-< yihkla'-ta. 

Tiiiit yahhn-ta. 

All m'lu'hd. 

Many 'kai-nim. 

Who yuh-un'-kicd. 

PuoNoirNa, Veubs, etc. 

Hero Iith-kla. 

There Iil-ha. 

Yes kai-tl. 

No /,-7. 

To eat hil-mCi])'. 

To drink na-'kh. 

To run ti'd-whila. 

To dance yuh-u-ha. 

To sing... ^(/i-((A-iuri.A. 

To .sk'C]) nu-uha. 

To speak ya-kun-tfila. 

To see t'l-kirula. 

To love ila-ichula. 

To k'.U kr-lii-kUi. 

To sit kwd'-h'di't. 

To stand Idn'-wha-tla. 

Togo hai'dna. 

To come k''-lad{hi. 

To walk k,V-sa. 

To Work I'-aduda. 

To steal kil-ootla'. 

To lie klill-kiiala. 

To give tsi'i or yd'daca. 

To laugh 1,'idlda. 

To cry 'kwri'-sa.